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Cognitive Psychology Second Midterm Review.docx

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PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Cognitive Second Midterm Review 11/4/2012 1:34:00 PM Long Term Memory - Herman Ebbinghausstarted with formed ideas and looked backward to find sources, studied how memory developed and was able to bring many variables under scientific control - Experimental control: the stimuli that is to be remembered has no semantic associations and participants have no experience with them (nonsense syllables like c-v-c)independent, manipulated variables include a retention interval, list length, extended practice (overlearning) and serial order and the dependent, observed variable is retention savings - An example of this experiment is to: study the list of nonsense syllables and measure study time for 2 perfect recitations (independent variable is the retention interval, ranging from 20 mins to 31 days), then relearn the list after RI and re-measure study time for 2 recitations - To calculate the retention savings: study time before RI MINUS study time after RI DIVIDED BY study time before RI - A retention interval of 20 mins: study time before RI=1000 seconds, study time after RI=400 seconds:-- savings=(1000-400)/1000=60% - The forgetting function of Ebbinghausthe retention of nonsense syllables is measured by savings in relearning, retention decreases as the retention interval (time between initial learning and the retention time) increases, but the rate of forgetting slows down - Extended practice (overlearning): after learning the list until 2 perfect recitals, one rehearsed list 30 more timesusing a 24hr RI, savings in relearning this overlearned list was 64%, compared to 34% for normal learning - Serial order: strength of the association between adjacent items on the list and direction of associations (forward and backward) - Forward and backward associations: 1. MEV, 2. GORforward: would presenting MEV evoke GOR? Backward: would presenting GOR evoke MEV? - If one learns 3 lists of 8 stimuli, and then relearned each list under different conditions (same order, reversed order and random order), if forward association exists, then savings on relearning the same list would be greater than savings for the random list and if backword associations exist than relearning reversed lists would be greater savnigs than random lists - Same savings: 33%, reversed savings: 12%, random savings: 0% - Strengths of ebbinghaus approach are the meticulous selection of stimuli, defining relevant independent variables and innovative dependent measure to measure strength of memory traces - Problems of his approach are that some nonsense syllables may have meaning (dux=ducks) and that he only used himself as a subject which raises concerns such as representativeness, expertise and bias - For long term memory: encoding involves the extended practice and list length, storage involves forward and backward associations and retrieval involves retention intervals Episodic Memory - Elaboration and intention affect whether something becomes stored in long term memory - Elaboration involves quality (not just quantity) of practice for memory encoding and also embellishing a to-be-remembered item with additional information - For example, remember simple sentences like the doctor hated the lawyer: there are two study conditionselaborative (generate an elaboration of the story) and control (just read and study sentence) and then complete the sentence (*memory test*) - Results: elaborative involves 72% recall and control involves 57% recall therefore elaboration might lead to recall of the word when word could otherwise not be recalled - Meaningful elaboration involves deep processing of the to-be- remembered information which leads to better memory than shallows processing - For example: read pairs of associated wordstwo types of association are semantic and rhymessemantic association results in 81% of recall and rhymes represent 70$ recall - Self reference: kind, rigid, brave, selfish (deep recalldoes this word describe you?)results in much higher recall - Intention and intuition: for example, subjects saw list of 24 words at 3 words per second: two task conditions involve deep (rate pleasantness of word) and shallow (is there and e or g)two learning conditions involveintentional (knowing your going to receive a memory test) and incidental (not sure if you will receive a memory test) - Results: incidental learning condition resulted in 68% of recall for pleasantness and 39% for checking letters and intentional learning condition involved 69% for pleasantness and 43% for checking letters - Therefore, intention does not matter but depth of processing did - Although intention can have a positive effect on memory, the effects are often indirectionwhen there is intention there is often elaboration - Memories forgotten but not lost: subjects studied 20 number-noun pairs to some criterion and two weeks later were memory testedthey were able to recall 75% of items and the remaining 25% were used again in another study test and 78% of those were recalled - Recall involves subjects being asked to generate previously-studied items and recognition askes whether a test item was a previously studied itemrecall is harder than recognition but recognition is not always easier - Long term memory: retrievalwhat are the factors that contribute to failures to retrieve information stored in LTM? Encoding-retrieval cor
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