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Midterm

PSYC 2740 Midterm: Midterm 2 - Study Notes
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by OneClass1249176 , Winter 2017
8 Pages
12 Views
Winter 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2740
Professor
Lewis Stephen
Study Guide
Midterm

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MIDTERM 2 STUDY NOTES
CHAPTER 7: Physiological Approaches to Personality
Electrodermal Activity: provides a measure of sympathetic nervous system (skin conductance)
- Place 2 electrodes on the skin and put electrode into one hand and measure conductance on the other
- Nock & Mendes study on skin conductance & self-injury
o Wanted to know if emotional reactivity to stressful experiences differ for people that self-harm
o Participants had to do a card matching game where everyone was told that they were wrong
o This was done to see how long people can tolerate distress from a negative feedback for
o People who self harm have elevated skin conductance and more negative reactivity to stress
Cardiovascular Activity
- Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
- Cardiac Reactivity: increase in BP and heart rate while in stress (linked with Type A
personality/hostile)
Brain Activity
- Electroencephalogram (EEG): measures brain activity via electrodes using a brain cap
- Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): show images of areas of brain activity (ex. Limbic
Activation)
o Neuroticism is correlated with increased frontal brain activation to negative images
o Extraversion is correlated with increased frontal brain activation to positive images
Eysenck’s Original Theory: looked at differences in extraversion/introversion when gateway in spine is
open or closed using the ascending reticular activation system (ARAS)
- Introversion has higher resting cortical arousal (ARAS lets in too much)
- Extroversion has lower resting cortical arousal (ARAS lets in too little)
Eysenck’s Revised Theory: believed that those high in introversion or extraversion don’t have different
resting states of arousal and that the difference lies in degrees of arousal
Behavioural Activation System: response to rewards and regulates approach behaviour (impulsivity)
Behavioural Inhibition System: responsive to punishment, uncertainty and motivates
inhibition/avoidance (anxiety)
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO): regulates levels of neurotransmitters by breaking it down
- Too little MAO = too much neurotransmitter
- Too much MAO = too little neurotransmitters
Clonginger’s Tridimensional Personality Model
- Low dopamine in novelty seeking
- Low serotonin in harm avoidance
- Low norepinephrine in reward dependence
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CHAPTER 9: The Intrapsychic Domain
Psychic Energy: the source of energy that fuels motivation and what we do. Personality is the product of
how psychic energy is being targeted
Freud’s 2 primary instincts
- Libido: life sexual and survival in nature
- Thanatos: death aggressive urges
Conscious: what you are thinking at the current moment
Pre-Conscious: readily available information that can be brought back up
Un-conscious: desires that if we brought back up, would not be acceptable in society
- Id: basic and dominant that drives all urges pleasure/satisfaction/fulfillment (take money if
someone drops it)
- Ego: restricts Id within reality at 2-3 years we cannot always satisfy urges (think of other ways to
get money)
- Super Ego: internalizes morals at age 5 not reality based (give money back to someone if they drop
it)
Anxiety
- Objective Anxiety: have it when there is a real threat (fear)
- Neurotic Anxiety: id/ego conflict where the id has sexual urges and the ego says that’s
inappropriate
- Moral Anxiety: ego/superego conflict like an eating disorder
7 Defense Mechanisms
- Repression: Preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, urges from reaching conscious
awareness- repressed memories
- Denial: Insisting that things are not as they seem by refusing to see facts
- Displacement: A threatening/unacceptable impulse is directed from its source to non-
threatening target Ex porn
- Rationalization: Generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that otherwise appear socially
unacceptable
- Reaction formation: To reduce an urge, one may show an opposite reaction
- Projection: Project own unacceptable desires, urges &/or qualities onto others
o Related to False Consensus Effect
o They say that its not just me with the problem, other people are just like them
- Sublimation: Channeling unacceptable instincts into a socially desirable activity
o Most adaptive: channeling into more acceptable activity
Aggressive people may play football
Happens unconsciously
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find more resources at oneclass.com
Psychosexual Stages of Development
- Oedipus Complex: boys sexual desire for mom
- Electra Complex: girls sexual desire for their dad
Psychoanalysis: form of psychotherapy used to help restructure personality by making the unconscious
into conscious
- 1st Goal: Identify unconscious thoughts/feelings
- 2nd Goal: Once patient is aware of this material, help him/her deal with it maturely/realistically
Revealing the Unconscious
- Free Association: patient says what’s on their mind (unfiltered content)
- Dream Analysis: interpret meaning of dreams
Manifest content: Actual content
Latent Content: What content means
- Projective techniques
The Process of Psychoanalysis
- Folloig the peious tehiues…
- Interpretation(s) by psychoanalysis
o Insight -- (by patient)
o Cogitie udestadig of oe’s poles & oespodig itese eotioal
experience
- As progress is made toward insight there might be
o Resistance
Patient sets up unconscious obstacles that work against progress
o Transference
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
MIDTERM 2 STUDY NOTES CHAPTER 7: Physiological Approaches to Personality Electrodermal Activity: provides a measure of sympathetic nervous system (skin conductance) Place 2 electrodes on the skin and put electrode into one hand and measure conductance on the other Nock Mendes study on skin conductance selfinjury o Wanted to know if emotional reactivity to stressful experiences differ for people that selfharm o Participants had to do a card matching game where everyone was told that they were wrong o This was done to see how long people can tolerate distress from a negative feedback for o People who self harm have elevated skin conductance and more negative reactivity to stress Cardiovascular Activity Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Cardiac Reactivity: increase in BP and heart rate while in stress (linked with Type A personalityhostile) Brain Activity Electroencephalogram (EEG): measures brain activity via electrodes using a brain cap Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): show images of areas of brain activity (ex. Limbic Activation) o Neuroticism is correlated with increased frontal brain activation to negative images o Extraversion is correlated with increased frontal brain activation to positive images Eysencks Original Theory: looked at differences in extraversionintroversion when gateway in spine is open or closed using the ascending reticular activation system (ARAS) Introversion has higher resting cortical arousal (ARAS lets in too much) Extroversion has lower resting cortical arousal (ARAS lets in too little) Eysencks Revised Theory: believed that those high in introversion or extraversion dont have different resting states of arousal and that the difference lies in degrees of arousal Behavioural Activation System: response to rewards and regulates approach behaviour (impulsivity) Behavioural Inhibition System: responsive to punishment, uncertainty and motivates inhibitionavoidance (anxiety) Monoamine Oxidase (MAO): regulates levels of neurotransmitters by breaking it down Too little MAO = too much neurotransmitter Too much MAO = too little neurotransmitters Clongingers Tridimensional Personality Model Low dopamine in novelty seeking Low serotonin in harm avoidance Low norepinephrine in reward dependence
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