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Midterm

PSYC 2740 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sympathetic Nervous System, Electrodermal ActivityPremium

8 pages86 viewsWinter 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2740
Professor
Lewis Stephen
Study Guide
Midterm

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MIDTERM 2 STUDY NOTES
CHAPTER 7: Physiological Approaches to Personality
Electrodermal Activity: provides a measure of sympathetic nervous system (skin conductance)
- Place 2 electrodes on the skin and put electrode into one hand and measure conductance on the other
- Nock & Mendes study on skin conductance & self-injury
o Wanted to know if emotional reactivity to stressful experiences differ for people that self-harm
o Participants had to do a card matching game where everyone was told that they were wrong
o This was done to see how long people can tolerate distress from a negative feedback for
o People who self harm have elevated skin conductance and more negative reactivity to stress
Cardiovascular Activity
- Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
- Cardiac Reactivity: increase in BP and heart rate while in stress (linked with Type A
personality/hostile)
Brain Activity
- Electroencephalogram (EEG): measures brain activity via electrodes using a brain cap
- Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): show images of areas of brain activity (ex. Limbic
Activation)
o Neuroticism is correlated with increased frontal brain activation to negative images
o Extraversion is correlated with increased frontal brain activation to positive images
Eysenck’s Original Theory: looked at differences in extraversion/introversion when gateway in spine is
open or closed using the ascending reticular activation system (ARAS)
- Introversion has higher resting cortical arousal (ARAS lets in too much)
- Extroversion has lower resting cortical arousal (ARAS lets in too little)
Eysenck’s Revised Theory: believed that those high in introversion or extraversion don’t have different
resting states of arousal and that the difference lies in degrees of arousal
Behavioural Activation System: response to rewards and regulates approach behaviour (impulsivity)
Behavioural Inhibition System: responsive to punishment, uncertainty and motivates
inhibition/avoidance (anxiety)
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO): regulates levels of neurotransmitters by breaking it down
- Too little MAO = too much neurotransmitter
- Too much MAO = too little neurotransmitters
Clonginger’s Tridimensional Personality Model
- Low dopamine in novelty seeking
- Low serotonin in harm avoidance
- Low norepinephrine in reward dependence
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CHAPTER 9: The Intrapsychic Domain
Psychic Energy: the source of energy that fuels motivation and what we do. Personality is the product of
how psychic energy is being targeted
Freud’s 2 primary instincts
- Libido: life sexual and survival in nature
- Thanatos: death aggressive urges
Conscious: what you are thinking at the current moment
Pre-Conscious: readily available information that can be brought back up
Un-conscious: desires that if we brought back up, would not be acceptable in society
- Id: basic and dominant that drives all urges pleasure/satisfaction/fulfillment (take money if
someone drops it)
- Ego: restricts Id within reality at 2-3 years we cannot always satisfy urges (think of other ways to
get money)
- Super Ego: internalizes morals at age 5 not reality based (give money back to someone if they drop
it)
Anxiety
- Objective Anxiety: have it when there is a real threat (fear)
- Neurotic Anxiety: id/ego conflict where the id has sexual urges and the ego says that’s
inappropriate
- Moral Anxiety: ego/superego conflict like an eating disorder
7 Defense Mechanisms
- Repression: Preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, urges from reaching conscious
awareness- repressed memories
- Denial: Insisting that things are not as they seem by refusing to see facts
- Displacement: A threatening/unacceptable impulse is directed from its source to non-
threatening target Ex porn
- Rationalization: Generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that otherwise appear socially
unacceptable
- Reaction formation: To reduce an urge, one may show an opposite reaction
- Projection: Project own unacceptable desires, urges &/or qualities onto others
o Related to False Consensus Effect
o They say that its not just me with the problem, other people are just like them
- Sublimation: Channeling unacceptable instincts into a socially desirable activity
o Most adaptive: channeling into more acceptable activity
Aggressive people may play football
Happens unconsciously
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Psychosexual Stages of Development
- Oedipus Complex: boys sexual desire for mom
- Electra Complex: girls sexual desire for their dad
Psychoanalysis: form of psychotherapy used to help restructure personality by making the unconscious
into conscious
- 1st Goal: Identify unconscious thoughts/feelings
- 2nd Goal: Once patient is aware of this material, help him/her deal with it maturely/realistically
Revealing the Unconscious
- Free Association: patient says what’s on their mind (unfiltered content)
- Dream Analysis: interpret meaning of dreams
Manifest content: Actual content
Latent Content: What content means
- Projective techniques
The Process of Psychoanalysis
- Folloig the peious tehiues…
- Interpretation(s) by psychoanalysis
o Insight -- (by patient)
o Cogitie udestadig of oe’s poles & oespodig itese eotioal
experience
- As progress is made toward insight there might be
o Resistance
Patient sets up unconscious obstacles that work against progress
o Transference
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