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FMLY 1010 Study Guide - Final Guide: Social Learning Theory, B. F. Skinner, Observational Learning

Family Social Sciences
Course Code
FMLY 1010
Sharon Balasko
Study Guide

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Exam study points #1-10
1. Reoccurring issues in human development: The factors that shape your life. A person’s
development is a blend of 3 fundamental characteristics of human development:
Nature Vs. Nurture-How much of your development is due to genetic or hereditary
influences(nature) or experiential or environmental influences(nurture).
Continuity and Discontinuity- Whether a particular development represents a smooth
progression through the life span(continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts(discontinuity).
Universal vs. context-specific development- whether there is only 1 path of
development or several. Ex. A 10-yr. old boy from Brazil will sell fruit without knowing
the full extent of the value of money while a 10-yr. old boy from Canada are formally
taught to identify numbers and perform arithmetic.
2. Developmental theories provide the “whys” for development. A theory is an organized
set of ideas designed to explain development. 5 perspectives influence current research:
Psychodynamic theory-Believe development is largely determined by how well people
resolve conflicts they face at different ages. This perspective comes from Sigmund
Freud’s theory that personality emerges from children’s experiences when they are
conflicted by what they want to do and what society wants them to do.
Learning theory- concentrates on how learning influences a person’s behaviour. This
theory examines behaviourism and social learning theory.
Behaviour- is determined by the consequences of a behaviour whether it was reinforced
or punished. B.F Skinner studied “operant conditioning” showing both consequences
were influential.
Social learning theory -was revolved around imitation (observational learning).
Cognitive-developmental theory-How people think and how thinking changes over time.
This theory covered 3 perspectives:
Piagets theory- was focused on children constructing knowledge and how their
constructions changed over time. He thought children created theories and tested them
daily to learn about their world. Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development were:
sensorimotor (birth-2 yrs.)-infant’s knowledge based on senses and motor skills, using
mental representation by the end of the period.
preoperational thought (2-6 yrs.)-children learn to use symbols
concrete operational thought (7 yrs. early adolescence)-child understands and applies
logical operations
formal operational thought (Adolescence and beyond)-thinks abstractly, thinks
hypothetical situations and speculates about what is possible.
Informational Processing Theory-human cognition consists of mental hardware and
mental software, referring to the cognitive structures including different memories
(Hardware)and organized sets of cognitive processes that enable people to do specific
tasks such as reading a sentence(software)
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