• Population ecology (conservation of birds)
• birds have been reducing and this is used to study why.
• Community ecology (effects of invasive species)
• plants - shading, pH changes, crowding, dense litter, cooler soils
• Ecosystem ecology (the causes of eutrophication)
• eutrophication - excess nutrients in a body of water causing an algae bloom
• they put a dam in a body of water with carbon and nitrogen then carbon and
nitrogen and phosphorus in the other. The one with phosphorus had an algae
• Sub-organismal processes are still important
• Global patterns in
• Temperature - the closer to the sun you are, the hotter the climate
• the earth is spherical
• Precipitation and relative humidity - related to temp.
• Polar cell, Ferrel cells, Hadley cell
• the earth is tilted on its axis
• High and low pressure
• Prevailing winds
• What causes these patterns?
• Climate change and biodiversity
• Microclimates –rain shadows, lake effects, etc.
• Rain shadows - A mountain close to bodies of water block moisture from moving to
the other side of the mountain so it doesn’t rain there.
• Lake effect - frost, winter lows, summer highs, increased precipitation, snow belts
• Vegetation - create shade, litter, moister and cooler.
• Biogeography - the study of how organisms are distributed geographically.