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Final Exam Review 21 pages of biol 139 exam review, includes pictures and diagrams associated with the content; covers every topic done in class

18 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 239
Christine Dupont

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Topic 1: Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel 1822 to 1884, an Augustinian monk and plant breeder, experiments with peas and flowers yellow colour dominant to green round shape dominant to wrinkled purple flower dominant to white flower green pod dominant to yellow pod long stem dominant to short stem flower along stem dominant to flower at tip of tem Class Genotype Phenotype Ratio Independent Parental Homozygous green and Assortment yellow Monohybrid F1 Heterozygous Yellow all F2 Yellow: green 3;1 Incomplete Parental AA x aa Red and white Dominance Monohybrid F1 Aa Pink all F2 Red: pink: 1;21 white Codominance Parental Ai and Bi A blood: B blood Monohybrid F1 AB AB blood all Independent Parental AAaa x aaBB Tan: Grey Assortment Dihybrid F1 AaBb Brown all F2 A_B_: A_bb: Brown: Tan: 9;3;3;1 aaB_: aabb Grey: Green Complementar Parental AAbb x aaBB white y gene F1 AaBb purple all F2 A_B_;A_bb, Purple: white 9;7 aaB_, aabb Recessive Parental BbEe Black Epistasis F1 B_E_:bbE_:_ee Black:brown:ye 9;3;4 llow Dominant Parental AaBb x AaBb White Epistasis F1 A_B_, aaB_ ; White: yellow: 12;3;1 A_bb; aabb green Polymorphic: a gene may have several alleles that normally occur in a population, more than one wild-type ex. eye colour, blood type Monomorphic: genes that have only one allele that is normally present in a population ex. Hemophilia, colourblindness Law of Segregation: two alleles for each trait separate during gamete formation then unite at random, one from each parent at fertilization Law of Independent Assortment: during gamete formation different pairs of alleles segregate independently Product Law: the probability of 2+ independent events occurring together is the product of the probabilities that each even will occur by itself ex. Susan and her husband are carriers for the recessive disease Galactosemia. What are the chances that if she has twins, both will be girls who have galactosemia? [(1/2)(1/4)]^2 = 1/64 chance Law of Sum: probability of either of two mutually exclusive events occurring is the sum of the their independent probabilities ex. what are the chances a child will phenotypically resemble either one of the parents? AaBbCcDd X aabbccdd (1/2)^4 + (1/2)^4 = 1/8 Topic 2: Modifications of Mendelian Ratios Incomplete dominance: the F1 hybrid resembles neither purebred parent, results in a 1:2:1 F2 ratio Codominance: alternative traits are both visible in the F1 hybrid ex. Blood types wild type >1%, mutant allele <1% Pleiotropy: multiple phenotypic effects caused by a single gene ex. Sick cell anemia Multifactorial inheritance: arising from the action of 2+ genes or from interactions between genes and the environment Complementary Genes: 2+ genes can work together to produce a particular trait Epistasis: the effects of an allele at one gene hide the effects of alleles at another gene epistatic: has control over another gene penetrance: percentage of the population with a particular genotype that demonstrates the expected trait ex. Retinoblastoma, only 75% with the gene are affected expressivity: degree of intensity with which a particular genotype is expressed in a phenotype ex. of those who get retinoblastoma, there is only 30% expressivity, usually only get in 1 eye sex-limited traits: affects a structure or process that is found in one sex but not the other ex. Milk production, sperm production sex-influenced traits: show up in both sexes but their expression may differ between the 2 sexes ex. Baldness conditional lethality: allele is lethal only under certain conditions ex. Malignant hypothermia is uncontrollable muscle contractions triggered by certain anesthetics permissive means life is allowed; restrictive means life is not allowed Topic 3: Pedigree Analysis thalassemia abnormal or reduced levels of hemoglobin, anemia, bone and spleen enlargement sickle-cell abnormal hemoglobin, anemia, blocked circulation, increased malaria resistance Tay-Sachs missing an enzyme, build up of fatty deposit in the brain, destroys nervous development, blindness, paralysis and mental retardation PKU cause AA phenylalanine to build up, converts to phenylpyruvic acid interfering with the nervous system and causing mental deficiencies albinism missing enzyme to melanin production hypercholesterolemia missing the protein that removes cholesterol, causes early heart attacks Huntingtons progressive mental damage by ages 40 to 70 cystic fibrosis mutation in an enzyme for Cl- regulation, accumulation of mucus in the lungs, difficulty breathing propositus: first person to be investigated in a pedigree Autosomal recessive matings between affected produce only affected offspring Autosomal dominant .have at least 1 affected parent Sex-linked recessive males are more affected, received from mother sex-linked dominant have at least 1 affected parent, affected males pass to all their daughters Topic 4: Chromosomes 1667 studies showing sperm contains spermatozoa 1854 frogs and sea urchins showing equal contribution 1879 threadlike structures in the nuclei of salamanders during cell division 1880 use of dyes for cytoplasm components 1900's Mendel, egg/sperm is haploid Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance: hereditary info is on genes, which are on chromosomes; egg and sperm contribute equally to genetics of offspring XXX XX XXY XO XY XXY OY Drosophil Dies Female Normal Sterile Male Male Dies a male male Humans Nearly Female Klinesfelt Turner'sMale Near dies normal er male female normal female male in some species sex is determined by environmental factors such as temperature, incubation, size crocodiles cooler temperature makes females turtles warmer temperatures makes females Topic 5: Mitosis kinetochore: site at which chromosome is attached to microtubules
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