Study Guides (248,269)
Canada (121,449)
Chemistry (166)
CHEM 237 (8)
Final

Biochem Exam Notes.docx

50 Pages
513 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 237
Professor
Joseph Guillemette
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1 -Fe involved in the transport of oxygen and in redox enzymes -Cu, Z, Se, Co are important at the active site of certain enzymes Amino acids = proteins Monosaccharides = starch, glycogen, chitin, cellulose Nucleotides = DNA, RNA Lipids = membranes Important Reactions Alcohol + acid -> ester Thiol + acid -> thioester Alcohol + aldehyde -> hemiacetal Alcohol + ketone -> hemiketal Amine + acid -> amide Thermodynamics -used to determine whether a physical process is possible Enthalpy: H, measure of heat evolved during a reaction Entropy: S, measure of disorder Free Energy: G, measure of the tendency for a process to occur Bioenergetics: study of energy transformation in living organisms 1st law-> energy is conserved 2nd law -> spontaneous processes are characterized by the conversion of order to disorder -entropy increases as the temperature rises (k is dependent on temperature) Gibbs free energy G=H-TS G=-RTlnK ATP + H2O = ADP + Pi exothermic ATP + H2O = AMP + Pi exothermic -exergonic because of resonance stabilization, electrostatic repulsion, smaller solvation energy Chapter 2: Water and Aqueous Solutions -oxygen has a partial charge of -0.82 and hydrogen has a partial charge of +0.41 -causes a permanent dipole moment of 1.85 Debye units -Hvap is the energy needed to break intermolecular interactions, increases as MW increases H bonds -> 1.8A long, strongest when OH-O is co-linear Co-operativity: probability that a second H bond will form after the first is increased -H2O is a good solvent because it is highly polar and has H bonding capability Coulombs law: describes the electrostatic forces between charged molecules Colligative properties of H2O -> properties of solutions that depend on the number of molecules in a given amount of solvent, not on the identity of the molecules -lowering of VP, lowering of freezing point, elevation of boiling point, osmotic pressure -in dilute solutions the effect is directly proportional to the number of solute particles per unit volume Osmotic pressure: pressure generated by the mass flow of water to that side of a membrane-bonded structure that contains the higher conc of solute molecules Osmosis: water movement across a semipermeable membrane driven by differences in osmotic pressure 1. Isotonic equal osmolarity, no net flow 2. Hypertonic cell is in a solution with a higher molarity, cell shrinks as water flows out 3. Hypotonic cell is in a solution with a lower molarity, cell expands as water flows in (lysis) Erythropoietin -> glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of oxygen carrying red blood cells, it is a cytokine for erythrocyte production in the bone marrow, its made by fibroblasts in the kidney; failing kidneys no longer produce sufficient EPO Buffers: solution containing substantial conc of a weak acid and its conjugate base which resists changes in pH upon addition of acid or base Buffer capacity: number of mols of OH- that must be added to 1L of a solution to increase its pH by 1 unit Buffer ratio = Cb/Ca -a buffer is most efficient when the buffer ratio is 1 (Cb=Ca) Chapter 3: Nucleic Acids and Genetic Info
More Less

Related notes for CHEM 237

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit