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Biochem Exam Notes.docx

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CHEM 237
Joseph Guillemette

Chapter 1 -Fe involved in the transport of oxygen and in redox enzymes -Cu, Z, Se, Co are important at the active site of certain enzymes Amino acids = proteins Monosaccharides = starch, glycogen, chitin, cellulose Nucleotides = DNA, RNA Lipids = membranes Important Reactions Alcohol + acid -> ester Thiol + acid -> thioester Alcohol + aldehyde -> hemiacetal Alcohol + ketone -> hemiketal Amine + acid -> amide Thermodynamics -used to determine whether a physical process is possible Enthalpy: H, measure of heat evolved during a reaction Entropy: S, measure of disorder Free Energy: G, measure of the tendency for a process to occur Bioenergetics: study of energy transformation in living organisms 1st law-> energy is conserved 2nd law -> spontaneous processes are characterized by the conversion of order to disorder -entropy increases as the temperature rises (k is dependent on temperature) Gibbs free energy G=H-TS G=-RTlnK ATP + H2O = ADP + Pi exothermic ATP + H2O = AMP + Pi exothermic -exergonic because of resonance stabilization, electrostatic repulsion, smaller solvation energy Chapter 2: Water and Aqueous Solutions -oxygen has a partial charge of -0.82 and hydrogen has a partial charge of +0.41 -causes a permanent dipole moment of 1.85 Debye units -Hvap is the energy needed to break intermolecular interactions, increases as MW increases H bonds -> 1.8A long, strongest when OH-O is co-linear Co-operativity: probability that a second H bond will form after the first is increased -H2O is a good solvent because it is highly polar and has H bonding capability Coulombs law: describes the electrostatic forces between charged molecules Colligative properties of H2O -> properties of solutions that depend on the number of molecules in a given amount of solvent, not on the identity of the molecules -lowering of VP, lowering of freezing point, elevation of boiling point, osmotic pressure -in dilute solutions the effect is directly proportional to the number of solute particles per unit volume Osmotic pressure: pressure generated by the mass flow of water to that side of a membrane-bonded structure that contains the higher conc of solute molecules Osmosis: water movement across a semipermeable membrane driven by differences in osmotic pressure 1. Isotonic equal osmolarity, no net flow 2. Hypertonic cell is in a solution with a higher molarity, cell shrinks as water flows out 3. Hypotonic cell is in a solution with a lower molarity, cell expands as water flows in (lysis) Erythropoietin -> glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of oxygen carrying red blood cells, it is a cytokine for erythrocyte production in the bone marrow, its made by fibroblasts in the kidney; failing kidneys no longer produce sufficient EPO Buffers: solution containing substantial conc of a weak acid and its conjugate base which resists changes in pH upon addition of acid or base Buffer capacity: number of mols of OH- that must be added to 1L of a solution to increase its pH by 1 unit Buffer ratio = Cb/Ca -a buffer is most efficient when the buffer ratio is 1 (Cb=Ca) Chapter 3: Nucleic Acids and Genetic Info
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