KIN 104 Midterm 2 Review
1) How should you breathe?
- Depends on the task: very specific
- Distance runners breathe out the mouth, synch it with gait
- Diaphragm is the muscle responsible for controlling breathing
- Sprint and do side plank to correct the diaphragm in sports like basketball in the NBA
- Weight lifters fill lungs to 70% of tidal volume before lift, and hold it during lift so as not to
collapse spine. They take tiny sips of air during the lift.
- Sprinters take either 0 breaths or one very small sip
2) Name movement patterns for training
- Pull, push, lift, lunge, squat, carry, specific isolationist patterns
- Instead of “leg day” or “arm day”, this is called exercising movements
- Pulling: contracts back, hamstrings, hips, lats; core stops twist of body (stabilizes)->linkage;
training athleticism throughout the linkage; sous can stabilize and create stronger pull
- Push: core stabilizes to stop twist; pushups on one arm put double back because obliques are
turned on to stabilize; have to be careful with compression on joints (causes soreness);
suspended push-ups produce more muscle activity but more joint load; Bench press vs.
standing cable press, standing cable press is better because it activates stabilizing muscles
- Squat: west-side squat (hip abduction and external rotation) activates glut. Max; squat works
legs, not butt unless you do west-side squats; one legged squats double the load on your body;
bowler squats for hockey; one legged squat transformed to a lunge is good for your back
- Torsional patterns: obliques, rectus abdominus; takes a lot of strength; hard on the body
- Carries: carrying while walking strengthens one leg at a time because alternating legs; builds
hip abduction strength; linkage fills in missing strength/stabilizes; carrying works QL and
- Isolationist approaches are for looking good, compound exercises are for being strong
3) Why are muscles designed with primarily parallel vs. series sarcomere arrangements?
- Many sarcomeres in parallel adds to the strength but can’t produce shortening (doesn’t have
to go very far)
- Series dominated spans a lot of area (ie from pelvis to gastrocnemius)
- Sarcomeres design muscles for a specific function
- 1 cm of a sarcomere= 1 N of force
4) You have 5 individuals for which you will design an exercise program. What process will you
- determine what the person wants to achieve (ie if they want to look good, choose a low
risk/high reward ratio; if they want to get fit, determine what they mean by fit and choose
exercises appropriately; if they want to remove pain, remove the cause of pain, address
deficits and do corrective exercise; if they want to enhance performance, you will have to
choose strength/speed/endurance exercises, not exercises that will help them look good)
- assess their personal goals
- assess their current state (ie injuries, injury history, movement competencies)
- assess their personality (ie people with diabetes tend to be less keen, people with breast
cancer tend to be more keen) 5) Contrast exercises for body-building with patterns of movement.
- Body builders would probably use isolationist patterns (ie work a specific muscle, arm day,
leg day), which is good for making certain muscle look good but not good for building
- Patterns of movement are for building strength, do not isolate specific muscles but instead do
- Body-builders train muscles, not movement (other way around is better functionally)
6) Describe the Quantam health expectancy theory.
- Certain quantity of life at birth
- Influenced by genetics, parental health, fetal health
- Environmental assaults erode the quantam (ie living in a warzone, eating poisoned food)
- Health behaviours support the quantam (ie right amount of exercise and nutrition)
7) Draw the “art and science” of injury prevention in a graph, highlight important features.
- Injury theory: posture (prolonged/repeated wear out tissues), movement (ie bending strategies),
load influences joint and tissue loading
- injury occurs when applied load is greater than tissue tolerance
- tissues are viscal elastic meaning that if tissues are loaded repetitively or for long periods of
time, injury will occur, but if a lot of force is applied at once quickly, injury will not occur (most
of the time- some exceptions) because it doesn’t have time to deform
- strain is accumulated which causes failure tolerance to decrease (fatigue, repeated stress)
- sitting with bad posture for a long period of time means strain increases, failure tolerance
- rest periods can increase tolerance (even higher than starting point)
- see graphs i) is the exception one time load injury, ii) is accumulated strain caused by repeated
stress, iii) is accumulated strain caused by poor posture for long period of time, iv) is rest periods
8) Describe levels of injury prevention.
- Primary prevention: Goal is to protect healthy people from developing disease or
experiencing first time injury. Examples: good nutrition, regular exercise, moving well, education, legislation (ie legislating helmet use), injury mechanism restriction, jurisprudence,
screening tests for risk factors
- Secondary Prevention: happens after an illness or serious risk factor has already been
diagnosed. Goal is to halt or slow the disease.
- Injury occurs when the applied load is greater than the tissue tolerance
9) What does every patient want/need to know?
- Exam results
- Natural history and prognosis
- Causes of pain
- What to avoid
- Therapy plan
10) Rehabilitation of an arm with a machine- what would you consider?
- Body weight before external resistance
- Corrective exercise before endurance (balance, strength, range of motion)
- Can’t create stability/mobility layers on a machine
- Can’t create engrams with a machine, limits use of stabilizers
- Force is created proximal->distally: machines can rob body of this by isolating an area where
force is created from
- Train movement, not muscles (need a good base of movement before you can train for
strength, machines tend to train for strength)
11) What causes movement dysfunction?
- Developmental Dysfunction: movement opportunities denied (developing child or excessive
unidimensional movement eg. Pitching), causes loose athletic base and balance
- Traumatic Dysfunction: pain alters movement. Perturbed patterns remain after pain
dissolved. Pain causes a lot of changes in movement.
- Acquired Dysfunction: unnatural activity or natural activity on a poor athletic base (consider
12) In a rehabilitation context, explain tolerance and capacity.
- Each person has a finite tolerance and capacity, particularly when in rehab
- Capacity is amount of work they can do, tolerance is amount of stress/load they can withstand
- We want to increase tolerance, and correct activities so that unproductive work does not
cause pain, giving them more ability to do productive work (increased capacity)
13) Pain causes changes in movement. Name a few. - loss of strength
- change in active muscle & passive tissue interplay
- range of motion
- muscle endurance