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PSCI150 Study Guide - Final Guide: Joseph Nye, North American Free Trade Agreement, Mutual Assured Destruction

Political Science
Course Code
Eric Helleiner
Study Guide

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PSCI 150 – Exam Review
Agenda-setting power: Capacity to decide which issues are up for discussion and
for policy intervention. Permanent members of the UN Security Council have agenda
setting power. It is the power of choosing the context, or what is up for political
Example: How the influence of the media tells us what is important. The CNN
effect is a theory in political science and media studies that postulates that the
development of the popular 24-hour international television news channel known
as Cable News Network. The media may function alternately or simultaneously
as (1) a policy agenda-setting agent, (2) an impediment to the achievement of
desired policy goals, and (3) an accelerant to policy decision-making.
Bargaining power: Capacity of one party to dominate the other due to its influence,
size, or power through persuasion tactics
Ex - countries with nuclear capabilities have bargaining power on the world stage
over countries that do not have nuclear capabilities
BATNA: Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement. Best you can do if a person
refuses to negotiate with you. The Batna is the lowest the party is willing to give up
in negotiations. It’s your walking away point.  Most a party is willing to lose in an
What is the US’s ideal BATNA?
For Iran to cease all nuclear programs.
Verification regime
Limiting stockpiles or speed of enrichment of uranium
Customary International Law: Established practices and customs among states
that become considered as laws  diplomatic immunity, banning of execution of
juveniles, human rights, law of the sea
State Practice - The notion of practice establishing a customary rule implies
that the practice is followed regularly, or that such state practice must be
"common, consistent and concordant".  practiced on a state-level
Opinio Juris - opinio juris is necessary to establish a legally binding custom.
Opinio juris denotes a subjective obligation, a sense on behalf of a state that it
is bound to the law in question.  sense of obligation
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Deterrence: Deterrence is a strategy intended to dissuade an opponent from taking
an action not yet started, or to prevent them from doing something that another
state desires.  Act of making someone decide not to do something.  Capability,
Credibility, Communicate.
Ex. Russia and USA during the Cold War, they each had a lot of power but none of
them used it. As long as any nuclear weapons state has second-strike capability,
deterrence functions and it puts them on equal footing with any other nuclear
weapons state
Framing: Use of images or text to shape a story in particular ways; by including and
emphasizing some aspects and leaving out others
Ex. International Campaign to Ban Landmines: Global campaign that was successful
because of the reframing of the debate from being ‘not a legitimate weapon of war’
to being ‘a scourge against humanity’. It won the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize.
Gender: the characteristics pertaining to the concepts of masculinity and femininity
in a society and how they play out with regards to rights, entitlements and
obligations. Patriarchy - there is a dichotomy with both inequality and power
between men and women, where ‘men’s work’ is valued over ‘women’s work’.
Women are typically paid less than men doing the same job.
Ex - Suma the labour bonded girl from Nepal didn’t get to go to school, because
traditionally, only sons of the family get that privilege.
Gender is the difference between men and women in a society in regards to rights,
entitlements, and obligations
Gramscian hegemony: Set of ideas everyone takes to be common sense, which
reflects the dominant structure of knowledge and power at a given time. Other
views are marginalized
Ex. Context of Afghanistan – women not being able to work and have a job feels like
it’s the norm to individuals and to societal values.
Hard Power: Use of military and economic means to influence behavior or interests
of other political agents. Often aggressive and effective when dealing with a political
body weaker in terms of military or economy
Ex - The sanctions placed on Iran are considered a form of hard power, preventing them
from importing/exporting certain goods so that the nation is unable to obtain nuclear
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International Law: Body of rules that binds states & other actors in world politics
in their relations to one another. Different from domestic law because:
1. They don’t have a formal policing system
2. The content is slightly different (governing rules between countries instead
of between individuals)
3. Whereas domestic law is made by local legislature, international law has no
Intersectionality: Synergistic effects resulting from 2 or more axis’ of oppression
including sex, gender, race, class, mental/physical health
Ex: A woman of colour from a lower social class is going to face different axes of
oppression than a white man at a higher class.
Jus Cogens: Customary international law that derives from natural law (those
rights that inhere to people regardless of laws enacted by the government)
and is non-derogable (cannot be altered by treaty or custom.
Ex - rules against genocide, torture, and laws of just war.
Mass Politics: (opposite of cadre politics) describes a political system where
parties appeal to masses of voters, rather than just a select few. Mass politics
could describe most modern democracies, where parties appeal to an extremely
broad spectrum of views, hoping for mass support, rather than advancing
specific agendas
Ex - Republicans and Democrats in the US. In Canada, Conservatives, Liberals, and
NDP are mass parties, whereas the Green Party is more of a cadre party)
Militarization: The process by which society organizes itself for military conflict.
The extension of military tactics, equipment, and mindset throughout society.
Ex – Police militarization in the US as seen in the events of Ferguson. Police adopts
military tactics and equipment.
Non-violent Protest: Collective actions taken to send a message of disapproval
against an actor’s policies or actions.  Strikes, boycotts
Ex - Gandhi used methods of nonviolent protest in order to remove British powers
from India and gain back Indian independence from colonialism
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