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Psych338 Textbook Notes for Midterm #3.docx

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Dan Brown

Chapter 8 – Social Influence, Socialization, and Organizational Culture - Information dependence  reliance on others for information on how to think, feel, and act - Social information processing theory  information from others is used to interpret events and develop expectations about appropriate and acceptable attitudes and behaviours - Effect dependence  reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment - Compliance  conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment - Identification  conformity to a social norm prompted by perception that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself - Internalization  conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm - Socialization  the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization - Socialization methods  proximal socialization outcomes  distal socialization outcomes o Socialization methods: realistic job previews, employee orientation programs, socialization tactics, mentoring, proactive tactics o Proximal socialization outcomes: learning, task mastery, social integration, role conflict, role ambiguity, person-job fit, person-organization fit o Distal socialization outcomes: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identification, organizational citizenship behaviour, job performance, stress, turnover - Person-job fit  the match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job - Personal-organization fit  the match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization - Organizational identification  the extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent - Stages of socialization: anticipatory socialization, encounter, and role management o Anticipatory socialization  occurs before a person becomes a member of a particular organization, either formal (skill and attitude acquisition) or informal (acquired through summer jobs or watching portrayal or organizational life in movies) o Encounter  new recruit enters day-to-day reality of this life; formal aspects include training, informal include understanding personalities of boss and coworkers o Role management  managing your role in the organization and balance this organizational role with non-work roles and family demands - Unrealistic expectations  often happen due to occupational stereotypes - Psychological contract  beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization - Psychological contract breach  employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations in the psychological contract - Methods of organizational socialization: realistic job previews, employee orientation programs, socialization tactics, mentoring, proactive socialization, o Realistic job previews  the provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants; effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance o Employee orientation programs  designed to introduce new employee to their job, the people they will be working with, and the organization; immediate effect on learning and a lasting effect on job attitudes and behaviours of new hires o Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress (ROPES)  designed to teach newcomers coping techniques to manage workplace stressors o Socialization tactics  manner in which organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition between roles o Institutionalized socialization  collective, formal, sequential, fixed, serial, and investiture tactics; more formalized structure of socialization that encourages new hires to accept the status quo o Individualized socialization  individual, informal, random, variable, disjunctive, and divestiture tactics; encourages new hires to question the status quo and develop their own approach to their role o Mentor  an experienced or more senior person in the organization who gives a junior person guidance and special attention, such as giving advice and creating opportunities to assist him or her during the early stages of his or her career o Formal mentoring programs  organizationally sponsored programs in which seasoned employee are recruited as mentors and matched with protégés o Developmental networks  groups of people who take an active interest in and actions toward advancing a protégé’s career by providing developmental assistance o Proactive socialization  the process through which newcomers play an active role in their own socialization through the use of many proactive socialization behaviours o Organizational culture  the shared beliefs, values, and assumptions that exist in an organization; contributors include: founder’s role, socialization o Subcultures  smaller cultures that develop within a larger organizational culture that are based on differences in training, occupation, or departmental goals o Strong culture  an organizational culture with intense and pervasive beliefs, values, and assumptions; assets include: coordination, conflict resolution, financial success; liabilities include: resistance to change, culture clash, pathology - Socialization steps in strong cultures  selecting employees, debasement and hazing, training “in the trenches”, reward and promotion, exposure to core culture, organizational folklore, role models Chapter 10 - Communication - Effective communication  communication whereby the right people receive the right information in a timely manner - Chain of command  lines of authority and formal reporting relationships - Horizontal communication  information that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort - Psychological safety  a shared belief that it is safe to take social risks - Mum effect  tendency to avoid communicating unfavourable news to others - Grapevine  an organization’s informal communication network - Rumour  an unverified belief that is in general circulation - Jargon  specialized language used by members of particular occupations or organizations - Gender differences in communication  men are more likely than women to blow their own horn about something good they’ve done; men are more boastful of themselves and capabilities and are thus perceived as more confident; men are less likely to ask questions; men see ritual apologies as weakness; men are blunt and straightforward which can lead to misunderstandings; women are more likely to provide compliments; women avoid ritual opposition; women to downplay their superiority, leading others to believe that they cannot project their authority; women are less direct - Facial expressions, gestures, gaze, and touch and the meaning of each differ between cultures - Cultural context  the cultural information that surrounds a communication episode - Information richness  the potential information-carrying capacity of a communication medium - Computer-mediated communication (CMC)  forms of communication that rely on computer technology to facilitate information exchange - Principles of effective communication  take the time, be accepting of the other person, do not confuse the person with the problem, say what you feel, listen actively, give timely and specific feedback - Congruence  a condition in which a person’s words, thoughts, feelings, and actions all contain the same message - Active listening  a technique for improving the accuracy of information reception by paying close attention to the sender - 360-degree feedback  performance appraisal that uses the input supervisors, employees,
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