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PSYCH312 Final: Psych 312 Glossary Lerner

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Ernie Mac Kinnon
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1Learning Disabilities Definitions
Strauss & Lehtinen
-Strauss and Lehtinen are pioneers who identified brain-injured children as a new category of
exceptional children. They identify three stages during which a brain injury could occur (before birth-
prenatal stage, during birth process, or at some point after birth-postnatal stage). They believed that
organic impairment lead to the impediment of normal learning process. Many of these children
previously had been classified as mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, autistic, aphasic, or
behaviorally maladjusted.
Public Law 94-142
-Public Law 94-142 is the first special education law providing services for students with disabilities,
which was called Education for all Handicapped Children Act. This identified for the first time each
category of exceptional children in special education, along with the actual prevalence rates for each
category of disability.
Discrepancy Definition
-The Federal definition states that the child with LD has severe discrepancy between achievement
(what the student has learned or achieved) and intellectual ability (student’s potential for learning) in
one or more of seven areas. To determine if discrepancy exists, one must 1. Determine student’s
potential for learning, 2. Student’s current achievement level, 3. Degree of discrepancy between the
student’s potential for learning and the actual achievement level.
-IDEA-2004 defines LD as a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes (memory,
auditory perception, visual perception, oral language, and thinking). The individual has difficulty in
learning (including speaking, listening, writing, reading, and mathematics) and that the difficulty is not
primarily due to other causes (visual/hearing impairments; motor disabilities; mental retardation;
emotional disturbance; or economic environmental, or cultural disadvantage. It offers all students
with disabilities a free, appropriate public education, including preschool, elementary school, or
secondary school instruction (special education and related services are provided at public
expense).It requires that each public school child who receives special education and related
services must have an IEP (an individualized written statement for each child with a disability).
NJCLD 1990, 2009
-NJCLD is an organization of representatives from 14 professional organizations and disciplines
involved with LD. It includes diverse group of disorders, significant difficulties in acquisition and use
of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or math skills; the disorders are inherent to the
individual, presumed to be due to CNS dysfunction; occurs across the life span; often problems in
self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction; and may co-occur with other
disabilities (i.e. sensory impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance).
NCLB (No Child Left Behind)
-The purpose of NCLB was to ensure that all children have fair, equal, and significant opportunity to
obtain a high-quality education and to reach a minimum proficiency on challenging state academic
achievement standards. All public schools are required to bring students to proficiency in reading and
math (while meeting educational needs of students, including poor children, children with LD, ELL,
minority and migratory children, and other neglected groups of children) and the law includes
sanctions for schools that fail to make acceptable progress.
RTI (Response to Intervention)
-RTI is a new procedure for teaching all students (including students in general education classes,
students who are at-risk for school failure, and students with suspected disabilities). It is a prevention
model to limit or prevent academic failure by providing “evidenced-based teaching procedures” for all
students in general education. It provides for increasing intensity levels of support for those students
who do not respond adequately to the instruction which consists of three tiers (each representing a
level of intervention/instruction), in which the model proposes that if a student responds well to the
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