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Bio361-action potentials and diversity of AP shape.pdf

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Biology
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BIOL 361
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Action Potentialslong distancetransmitted wout degrading3 phases1 Diversity of APshape3distinct functions of neuronsreceiveintegrate depolarization phasetriggered when mpaction hillocknet graded potential incoming signalsconduct signals thru celltransmit signals to other cellsthreshold70 to 30mV2repolarization phasemp returns to the rmp whatever the incoming signalmembound receptors in the dendrites of the 3afterhyperpolarizationmp gets morethan the rmp and approaching to sensory neuron receive the signaltransduce it into an electrical signal in the the K equilm poten then returns to rmpabsolute refractory periodcoincides form of a chnge in the mem potenmany dendritesable to integrate w depolarizationrepolarizationaxon incapable of generating a new APenormous of incoming signals from other neuronsmotor neuronaxon relative refractory periodcoincides w afterhyperpolarization AP can be longer than dendritefor rapidLDelectrical signallingbased on function generated only if its a very large stimulicharacteristics of APcaused by sensoryafferent neuronsconvey sensory info from body to CNSbrainopeningclosing of Vgated ion channelsbinding of neurotransmitter spinal cordinterneuronslocated win CNSconvey signals from one ligandgated ion channel changed shapemempotent changedvoltageneuron to anothermany dendritesefferent neuronsconvey signals from the gated ion channel changed shapeions are allowed to move acrosssquid CNS to effector organsskeletal muscle for mnsmooth muscleendocrine giant axonsends signals from CNS to the muscle of the squids mantle cavity glandsbased on structuremultipolar neuronshave many cellular extension invertebrate motor neuron1positive feedback loop of Namp approaches leading from cell bodyonly one of them is axonothersdendritesmost the threshold potentVgated Na channels in the axon hillock begin to common in vertebratesnot all of them generate APbipolar neuronopenchnging the permeability of the membrane to Naallow Naions to have2main processes extending from the cell body1highly branchedmove across the membraneNainuxfurther depolarize the local regionconveys signals to the cell bodyfunctionally similar to a dendrite 2conveys further increase the probability that Vgated Nachannels will openmoreVsignals away from the cell bodylike an axonleast common in vertebrates gated Nachannels to openincrease permeability of the memmore Nathe end of one processes detect incoming signalstransduce them into a entering cellthe probability that a given Vgated Nachannel will be graded potentspreads electrotonically to the cell bodyAP triggered in the openopen probability of the channeldepends on the size of the graded 2nd processwhich acts as an axonunipolar neuronhas a single process potentialexcitatory graded potential that depolarize the membrane toward from the cell bodyprocess splits into 2 branchespseudounipolar 1conveys the threshold potential increases the probability that a Vgated Na will be signals toward the cell body 2conveys signals away from the cell bodyare openthreshold potent more Vgated Nachannels will be open than when generally sensory neurons that are involved in detecting environmental the axon hillock is the rmpincreasing the permeability of the membrane to signalsconveying this info to the rest of the nervous sysdendrites detect NaVgated Nachannelshigh in the axon onlyAP occur in the axon but incoming signalstransduce them into graded potentbut DO NOT travel not in the cell bodydendrites of a neuron2right before the mp reaches directly to the cell bodythey travel only as far as the beginning of the process 60mV Vgated Nachannels closedepolarization terminates3Vgated K that leads to the cell bodyif AP is triggered in the beginning segment then it channels open more slowly than Vgated Na channelsKmoves out of cell travel toward the cell bodyonward to the axon terminalcall it axondendriteit makes intracellular more repolarizationthe diff in time it takes for Vcan generate APaxon but conduct impulses toward the cell body rather than gated Na channels and Vgated Kchannels to open in response to a away from the cell bodydendriteinvertebrate mn are ofter unipolar rather threshold depolarization repolarization occurs after depolarization4Vgated than multipolar5main types of glial cells1Schwann cellswrap around the Kchannels close slowlystay open after the membrane has reached rmpKaxons of neu
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