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Cellular, Anatomical and Physiological Sciences
CAPS 391
Bruce Matheson

METABOLISM – Notes Cellular Respiration Use of stored energy to do work in the body Anabolic > synthesis/storage of chemical fuels, requires energy, occurs in all body cells that divide to form new ones, maintains intracellular structure, produces molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters) for export. Catabolic > Breakdown of fuel with release of energy, begins in digestion, concludes in individual cells, energy is used to drive anabolic reactions, active transport, muscle contractions Glycogen > multiple glucose stuck together by chemical bonds Carbohydrates In plants, dairy products (lactose) Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides Monosaccharides > include glucose and fructose. Plants produce glucose by sunlight energy (in vegetables). Fructose + galactose > isomers of glucose, fructose is in fruits, berries, corn syrup. Galactose is in milk. Sucrose > dissacharide, glucose+fructose combined, in sugarcane, maple sugar, etc. Maltose > derived from germinating cereals (2 glucose and lactose) consists of glucose and galactose. Complex Carbs > polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose. Starch (energy storage molecules found in plants), Glycogen (energy storage molecule in animals, muscle and liver). Processed meats have little to no glycogen left because it is used by dying muscle cells. Cellulose (forms plant cell walls). Poly / Di saccharides broken into monosaccharides in digestion, absorbed by blood. Humans produce enzymes that break bonds between glucose molecules of starch/glycogen. Do NOT produce enzymes that break bonds between cellulose glucose molecules. Cellulose provides fiber (roughage) increasing bulk of feces/easier for defecation. Liver > converts fructose, galactose, other monosaccharides absorbed by blood into glucose*. Glucose provides energy to produce ATP. Muscle/Liver cells convert excess glucose to glycogen. Cells only hold certain amt of glycogen, the rest of glucose is converted to lipids/stored in adipose tissue. Glycogen can be converted back to glucose (exercise, between meals). Sugars make DNA, RNA, combine to form glycoproteins (glycoprotein receptor molecules on surface of plasma membranes). Lipids 95% triglycerides * > 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol molecule. Fats > solid at room temp Oils > liquid at room temp Saturated fats/oils > single covalent bonds between carbon atoms of fatty acids (meat fats, dairy products, eggs, coconut oil, etc.) Unsaturated fats/oils > one or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms of fatty acids. Monosaturated fats > one double bond (olive/peanut oil) Polyunsaturated fats > 2 or more double bonds (fish, sunflower, corn oil) Unsaturated > classified based on location of first double bond on omega end of fatty acid (omega-3 = first double bond starts 3 carbons after omega end, etc.) 5% lipids > cholesterol/phospholipids (lecithin) Cholesterol > steroid in high concentrations in egg yolks/liver, not in plants Phospholipids > major components of plasma membranes, also in egg yolks Cis > bends, hard for multiple molecules to lineup/form a sheet Trans > straight, line up and form precipitate, hydrogen are in opposite directions Proteins Chains of amino acids, 20 kinds of amino acids > essential and non essential Essential amino acids > body cannot synthesize, obtained in diet * Nonessential > necessary to construct proteins, can be synthesized from essential amino acids Complete Protein > food that contains all 9 essential amino acids (meat, milk, cheese, eggs) Incomplete Protein > does not (leafy vegetables, grains) 2 incompletes are ingested > 2 amino acids complement, form complete proteins. Essential/nonessential amino acids synthesize proteins. Collagen > provides structural strength in CT, Ketarin > in skin Emzymes > regulate rate of chemical reactions Protein hormones > regulate physiological processes Proteins in blood > prevent pH changes (buffers), transport O2 and CO2 (hemoglobin) Transport proteins > move materials across plasma membrane, also function as receptor molecules Antibodies, lymphokines, complement, part of immune system response that protects against foreign substances Proteins > used for energy, excess convert amino acids to glycogen or lipids. Vitamins Organic molecules essential to normal metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, blood clotting Essential vitamins > obtained through diet, not made by body (no food provides ALL essential vitamins) Vitamin K > by intestinal bacteria, others formed by body to form povitamins * Provitamins > part of vitamin that body can assemble/modify into functional vitamin (beta carotene into vitamin A) Coenzymes > combine with enzymes to make enzymes functional, without them reactions would occur too slowly for good health. Fat soluble or water soluble * Fat soluble > A, D, E, K dissolve in lipids, absorbed from intestine with lipids, can be stored for a long time, if too long can cause toxicity of the body. Water soluble > B vitamins/ C, dissolve in water, absorbed from water in intestinal tract, remain in body for short period, excreted in urine. Minerals Inorganic nutrients, necessary for metabolic functions, 2 groups: Major minerals > 100mg or more daily required Trace minerals > less than 100mg a day will work 4-5% body weight, components of coenzymes, some vitamins, hemoglobin, organic molecules. Establish resting membrane potential, generate AP’s, add mechanical strength to bones/teeth, combine w/ organic materials, act as coenzymes, buffers, regulate osmotic pressure. Animal/plant sources, limited in plants bc minerals bind to plant fibers. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions Chemical reactions responsible for transferring energy from chemical bonds of nutrient molecules to ATP involve oxidative/reduction reactions * Molecule is reduced > when it gains electrons Molecule is oxidized > when it loses electrons Nutrient molecule has H atoms covalently bonded to carbon atoms to make a backbone of a molecule. H+ atom has H and an electron, nutrient molecule has many electrons and is highly reduced. When H+ atom and electron are lost from nutrient molecule, molecule loses energy and becomes oxidized, energy in the electron synthesizes ATP. In Oxidation, electrons are moved by 2 intermediate carriers NAD+ (niacin) + 2H  NADH + H+ FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) + 2H  FADH2 Oxidati
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