FNH 350 Notes for the course

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Food, Nutrition and Health
FNH 350
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Renal function1What are podocytesHighly differentiated glomerularepithelial cells that float above the glomerular basement membrane with foot processes that mesh together to prevent proteins like albumin from entering urine 2Describe the osmotic environment in the different parts of the loop of Henle and explain what it meansaIsotonic entering the loop of Henle concentration of ions in the cortex is equal to that inside the loop of Henle bThe descending loop of Henle is permeable to water but the environment outside it the medulla is highly concentrated in ions Therefore water leaves the loop of Henle into the medulla and the urine because more concentrated at the bottom It is hypertonic now cThe ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to water very rare in cells but permeable to Na and Cl Water cant leave the tubule and theres already less to begin with but solutes are forced out so that the medulla stays concentrated Because of this by the time the urine reaches the distal tubule it is hypotonic again 3What 3 characteristics of molecules passing through allow the glomerulus to act as a molecular sieveUse albumin as an example 1 Size Bigger proteins dont fit Albumin is too big 2 Charge The glomerular basement membrane is negatively charged which means that negative proteins such as albumin are repelled 3 Shape Rodlike proteins fit through on occasion unlike globular proteins 4What are the functions of the kidney1Regulates electrolyte balance in the blood by filtration secretion reabsorption2Produces bicarbonate ions which are an essential part of pH homeostasis3Produceserythropoietin production of red blood cells 4activates vitaminD calcium metabolism 5 produces renin in the afferent arteriole which affects water retentionhomeostasis 5What are the 4 characteristics that are needed in a substance used to measure GFR Compare creatinine to inulin using these characteristicsaMust be freely filtered b Must not be reabsorbed into the blood or secreted into the tubulecMust not be synthesized or catabolized by the kidney d4 Must not alter GFR itself Unlike inulin creatinine is not the perfect measurement for GFR because it is secreted in small quantities by the proximal tubules Although it does slightly overestimate GFR it is less invasive and less expensive than inulin because the bodys skeletal muscles already produce it Doesnt need to be infused6What can be expected in urine if there is a loss of the negative charge of the glomerular basement membraneMassive proteinuria albumin isnt repelled and manages to get into the filtrate7What are the differences between chronic renal failure and acute renal failure concerning creatinine measurementsaChronic renal failure is reflected accurately by plasma creatinine because If GFR decreases then excretion is less than production so plasma Cr
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