FNH 471 Midterm.docx

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Food, Nutrition and Health
Course Code
FNH 471

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FNH 471 Midterm1Clearly explain why nutrition is important during pregnancy using specific examplesBABYTissue formationImportant to avoid teratogens which can cause birth defects alcohol drugs Excess vitamin AmalformationsInadequate vitamin Dpoor bone density Inadequate ironLBW preterm death Inadequate zinclimited fetal growthNutrition is one of the most important modifiable variables leading to brith of mature term infant with good weightLBW Infants55lbs at birth SGAsmall for gestational agePreterm less than 38 weeks LBW Infantshave increased risk for infection learning disabilities impaired stphysical development and death in 1 term Neurological development brain spine cord developmentNeural tube defectFetal alcohol syndromeAbility to reach intellectual potentialLBW Infants Mothers diet low in fatpoor brain development in infantPrevent future health problems for the childThe Barker Hypothesisconditions during pregnancy are related to lifelong risk of heart disease diabetes and hypertension MOTHERPrevent gestational diabetesInfant depends on mother for all needs 2Define and describe the stages of gestationGestationperiod of intrauterine development from conception to birth 40 weeks TRIMESTERSst1 trimesterfirst week of last menstrual period to end of week 13nd2 trimesterweek 14 to 27rd3 trimesterweek 28 to birthFull term infant born between 38 and 42 weeksFETAL DEVELOPMENT Blastogenesisfertilization to2 weeksthEmbryonic stageday 15 to end of 8 week 2 weeks2 monthsEmbryo and trophoblast are connected by body stalk body stalk becomes umbilicalEmbryo cells differentiate into 3 germinal layers1Ectoderm2Mesoderm3EndodermEnd of embryonic stageall major features of a human infant are presentWeight 6g 1 raisin is1gthFetal stage9 week till birth CRITICAL PERIODCritical perioda time during which the cells of a tissue or organ are genetically programmed to multiply Growth and development proceeds through a series of critical periods most are early1If proper growth and development does not take place during this period it cannot be made up later 3Identify the goals of nutrition during pregnancyHealthy mother and healthy fetusNutrition during pregnancy is important because the fetus requires nutrients for growth and development the mother also needs to maintain her health during the pregnancy by meeting her nutritional needs Woman will not know she is pregnant right awayGood nutrition and healthy weightbetter outcomesProblems related to nutrition deficiencies develop early neural tube defectAvoid teratogens4Baker Hypothesissummarize and highlight key findingsRisk of heart disease type 2 diabetes high blood pressure may depend to a certain extent on the environment the fetus experiences in the uterus Poor maternal nutrition can affect likelihood that offspring will experience health challenges decades laterLow birth weight babies are at higher risk5Comment on Dutch Famine as a nutritional experimentNazi blocked food to Netherlands Some survived by eating tulip bulbs and adding paper to soupDutch Famine is a unique situation where the outcome of restricted nutrition during pregnancy could be studied in humansFound that early gestation is the most vulnerable period for meeting nutritional requirementsMothers diet before and at the beginning fo pregnancy is most important in preventing disease in the childs life 6Compare and justify pregnancy weight gain recommendations based on a womans prepregnancy weight Blastogenesisembryonic stagelittle weight gainst1 trimestergain 052 kgAppropriate gain depends on weight before pregnancyRisk if gain too littlebaby will be born preterm or be small for gestational age nutrient reserves depletedRisk if gain too muchlarge baby will have problems with subsequent weight managementPattern of gain importantgenerally 35 pounds in first trimester and 1lbweek thereafter 2
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