Breakdown of glycogen into glucose
What are the physiological actions of insulin?
1. Promotes entry glucose into cells
2. Provides storage of glucose as glycogen
3. Inhibits breakdown of fat and glycogen
4. Increases protein synthesis and inhibits
Production of new glucose from noncarbohydrate
What is diabetes mellitus?
It is a metabolic disease in which insulin sensitivity is
decreased OR decreased insulin secretion which
ultimately causes hyperglycemia.
Diabetes Mellitus includes
Type1, Type2, gestational diabetes and ohter types
What is the difference between Type1 and Type2?
Type1: lack of insulin secretion
Type2: lack of sensitivty for insulin on cell receptors
Both have serious chronic conditions affecting
cardiovascular and nervous system
Waht are the characterisitcs of Type1:
Accounts for 5-10% of all cases with diabetes
Most common diseases of childhood
Cause: Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta
cells causing lack of insulin secretion
Symptoms of Type1 of sustained hyperglycemia
Polyuria: excessive urination
Polyphagia: increased hunger
Polydipsia: increased thirst
Glucosuria: high levels of glucose in urine
What can happen of DM(type1) is untreated?
1. Damage to arteries: heart disease, stroke, kidney
2. Nerve degeneration: produces symptoms ranging
from tingling fingers or toes; complete loss of sensation
of a limb.
3. Glucose is unable to enter cells: lipids used as
energy, keto acids are produced as a by product. Keto
acids causes fruity odor. High levels of keto acids
lower pH causing diabetic ketoacidosis.
What is DKA? What causes it?
DKA caused by the lack of glucose being able to enter
cells for energy and therefore lipids are used. When
lipids are used the by product of lipid formation is
ketoic acid. High levels of ketoic acid lower the pH