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PSYC 100 - 11 Testing and Individual Differences.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 100
Peter Graf

AP Psychology Testing and Individual Differences Psychometricians (measurement psychologists) – focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data; measure mental traits, abilities, processes Intelligence – mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations Intelligence test – a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others - using number scores Factor analysis – a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (factors) on a test - used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score Reification – when we view an abstract concept (ex intelligence) as if it were a concrete thing, we have made the error of reification Theories of intelligence Francis Galton – determine one’s intelligence by measuring head size, body proportions, reaction times Charles Spearman – smart in one area, skilled in other; mental talents correlated; general intelligence • General intelligence (g-factor)– a general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measure by every task on an intelligence test L. L. Thurstone – disagreed with Spearman, “7 Primary Mental Abilities” • all independent from each other: inductive reasoning, word fluency, perceptual speed, verbal comprehension, spatial visualization, numerical ability, and associative memory • Savant syndrome – a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill Howard Gardner – agreed with Thurstone –intellectual skills independent from one another; • 8 independent multiple intelligences: logical/mathematical, spatial, linguistic, body- kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist Robert Sternberg – believed there are 3 general types of IQ • Triacrchic Theory of Intelligence o Academic/analytic: assessed by intelligence tests –well-defined problems with single answer; school smarts, facts o Creative: demonstrated by reacting adaptively to new situations and generating novel ideas; seeing multiple solutions o Practical: required for everyday tasks; multiple solutions; street/business smarts John Horn and Raymond Cattell - g should be divided into 2 factors of intelligences: • Crystallized intelligence –accumulated knowledge/verbal skills (ex vocab), tends to AP Psychology increased with age • Fluid intelligence – one's ability to reason speedily/abstractly, tends to decrease during late adulthood Other types of intelligences Emotional intelligence (EQ) – Daniel Goleman -ability to perceive, express, understand, manage emotions Creativity – the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas Threshold theory – a certain level of intelligence is necessary, but not sufficient for creative work. Brain Functions and Intelligence • Moderate correlation between brain volume and IQ • Moderate correlation between IQ and processing speed; perceptual speed; neurological speed Assessing Intelligence Aptitude test – a test designed to predict a person's future performance - capacity to learn = aptitude Achievement test – a test designed to assess what a person has learned (ex. AP exam, driver license test) Alfred Binet + Theodore Simon – first intelligence test to measure child’s mental age, predict future
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