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PSYC 305 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Discriminant Validity, Construct Validity, Discriminant

Course Code
PSYC 305
Sunaina Assanand
Study Guide

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Personality & Research Methods Chapters 1&2
- Pesoalit: dai ogaizatio, iside the peso, of pshophsial sstes that eate the peso’s
characteristic patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings
1. pshophsial our personality is a product of biological systems tied to physical body
2. dai  personalities are responsive, gives personality ability to change to immediate requirements
3. ogaizatio well organized biological systems give rise to actions/reactions
4. eate personality is a causal force (creates behaviours, thoughts, behaviours, is a driving force)
5. haateisti pattes personality creates characteristic patterns, essence that remains constant
despite short term changes
6. ehaiou, thoughts, ad feeligs personality manifests on multiple levels (behavior, cognitive,
emotional), many ways
Two fundamental themes in Personality Psychology
1. Individual differences: each person is diff from everyone else (even twins)
2. Intrapersonal functioning: processes w/in person that lead you to act the way you do
Why study personality?
- Personality psychology has 3 goals:
1. Descriptive goal
2. Explanatory goal explain personality
3. Predictive goal applied settings (predicting actions/reactions) eg. clinical, military, corporate used
Clinicians use this to predict what will happen to patients
Military & corporate predict the most well suited to combat
- Theory: proposed explanation/interpretation of the relations among constructs
Set of ideas about how to think about class of events, testable
- Costut: oeptual/hpothetial aiale that a’t e dietl oseed
Eg. happiness, intelligence, aggressiveness, optimism, ethnicity (every racial classification is diff)
Ask self: Do I need to figure out how to measure this then it is a construct
Not constructs:
o Eg. salary, grade, hair colour, eye colour, weight, height, blood pressure
o Directly observable
Is personality a construct? Yes. (Need to figure out a way to measure personality)
- Good theory explains content, advance understanding (predict)
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Theories serve 2 functions:
1. Synthesizing function: organize and explain observations
2. Heuristic function: Generate predictions (eg. hypotheses) when tested, advance our understanding
Criteria used to evaluate the quality of a theory:
1. Comprehensiveness: does the theory explain the bulk of the content? (yes = good theory, no = bad)
2. Heuristic value: does the theory generate/advance our understanding? (yes = good theory, no = bad)
3. Parsimony: # of constructs are included in a theory (few constructs > many constructs the fewer the better)
4. Testability: theory can be tested (generate predictions/hyp that allow us to gather empirical evidence)
Eg. psychoanalysis: predictions/hyp are diff to test
o Most relate to the unconscious mind inaccessible
o If we cannot retrieve, then unable to test
How is research used to test a theory?
- Researchers must identify observable variables that reflect constructs of interest
- Operationalization: translation of construct into a variables we can observe/measure
- Examples of operationalizations:
Eg. Construct: Aggressiveness
o Operationalization: frequency and intensity of shocks given to a confederate
o More shocks = more aggressive
Eg. Construct: Intelligence
o Operationalization: scores on an IQ test
Eg. Construct: Self-esteem
o Operationalization: scores on a self-report measure of global self-worth
Eg. Construct: PERSONALITY (singular construct)
o Operationalization: ?
Are operationalized (translated into observable variables) using
several techniques:
- Observer ratings (eg. interview, behavioural observations,
informant data)
Interviewer is observing responses of participant
Behavioural observations watch participant
Informant data not trained, but acquainted with the topic
- Implicit assessments (eg. Rorschach Ink Blot Test, Picture Story Exercise)
Assesses unconscious components of the mind
Blot test 2nd most commonly used test in forensic psych (criticized for low reliability)
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- Self-reports (most common)
T/F ites, eithe hae o do’t hae the ualit ot i etee, checklists
Roseeg’s “elf-Esteem Scale (rate self on scale 1-5)
Unstructured Self-Report: Twenty-“tateets Test oplete stateet I a 
- Personology: study of the whole person, rather than just one aspect
- Experience sampling: ppl report repeatedly on their current experiences
Idiographic method: approach that focuses on individual (exp sampling & case studies)
- Correlation: if values of two variables go together (no manipulation, long duration)
Direction (+ve/-ve) & strength (less scatter = strong; more scatter = weak) of the correlation
High + high numbers (low + low numbers) positive correlation
Low + high numbers negative/inverse correlation
- Coelatio do’t tell WHY aiales go togethe
Cannot conclude cause and effect
Causality: relationship b/w cause and effect
Third variable problem: unmeasured variable may cause the variations in both of the correlated variables
- Correlation coefficient (r): strength of correlation
Perfect +ve correlation = 1.0
- Statistically significant: when probability is small relationship is real, not random occurrence
Clinically/practically significant: association large enough to have some practical importance
Experimental Research
- Experimental method: one variable is manipulated to test for causal influence on another variable
Demonstrates cause and effect, COMPARISON b/w groups, short duration
Shows that manipulation auses the diffeee, ut do’t ko what it was about it that did the causing
- Independent variable (cause) = manipulated
- Dependent variable = measured
- Experimental control: holding non-manipulated variables constant
- Random assignment: putting ppl randomly into groups
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