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SOCI 100 Midterm Notes.docx

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SOCI 100

Chapter 1The Sociological PerspectiveSociology is the systematic study of human societyA society is people who interact in a defined territory and share a cultureThe sociological perspective is the special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular peopleThe sociological perspective reveals the power of society to shape individual livesC Wright Mills called this point of view the sociological imagination which transforms personal troubles into public issuesBeing an outsider or experiencing social crisis can encourage the sociological perspectiveApplying the Sociological PerspectiveApplying the sociological perspective has many benefitsIt helps us understand the barriers and opportunities in our lives it gives us an advantage in our careers and it guides public policyThe Origins of SociologyRapid social change helped trigger the development of sociologyThings like the rise of an industrial economy the explosive growth of cities and new political ideasAuguste Comte named sociology in 1838Early philosophers tried to describe the ideal society but Comte wanted to understand society as it really isMany later sociologists used sociology to try to make society betterPositivism is a scientific approach to knowledge based on positive facts as opposed to mere speculationThe Importance of a Global PerspectiveGlobal perspective is the study of the larger world and our societys place in itGlobal awareness is an important part of the sociological perspective because our societys place in the world affects us allSociological TheoryA theory is a statement of how and why specific facts are relatedThe theoretical approach is a basic image of society that guides thinking and researchThe structuralfunctional approach is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stabilityIt explores how social structures work together to help society operateIt is macrolevelA social structure is any relatively stable pattern of social behaviourSocial functions are the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a wholeManifest functions are the recognized and intended consequences of any social patternLatent functions are the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social patternSocial dysfunction is any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of societyThe socialconflict approach is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and changeIt shows how inequality creates conflict and causes changeIt is macrolevelThe genderconflict approach is a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and menLinked to the SC approachFeminism is the support of social equality for women and menThe raceconflict approach is a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between peoples different racial and ethnic categoriesLinked to the SC approachMacrolevel orientation is a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a wholeMicrolevel orientation is a closeup focus on social interaction in specific situationsThe symbolicinteraction approach is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individualsIt studies how people in everyday interaction construct realityIt is microlevelScience is a logical system that develops knowledge from direct systematic observationEmpirical evidence is information that we can verify with our sensesA concept is a mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a simplified formA variable is a concept whose value changes from case to caseMeasurement is a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific caseReliability is consistency in measurement
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