Organizations: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through
Organizational Behaviour: the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in
Management: the art of getting things accomplished in organizations
Classical viewpoint: an early prescription of management that advocated high
specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and
centralized decision making.
Scientific management: system for using research to determine optimum degree of
specialization and standardization of work tasks.
Bureaucracy: ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of
command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized
power, and selection and promotion based on technical
Hawthorne studies: research that illustrated how psychology and social
processes affect productivity and work adjustment
Human relations movement: a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that
advocated management styles that were more participative
and oriented toward employee needs.
Contingency approach: an approach to management that recognizes that there is no
one best way to manage, and that an appropriate
management style depends on the demands of the situation.
Talent management: An organizations process for attracting, developing,
retaining and utilizing people who the required skills to
meet current and future business needs.
Responsibility (CSR): An organization taking responsibility for the impact of its
decisions and actions on its stakeholders Chapter 2
Personality: the relativity stable set of psychological characteristics that
influences the way an individual interacts with his or her
Locus of control: a set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled
mainly by external forces
Self-monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they
appear and behave in social settings and relationships
Self-esteem: the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
Behavioural plasticity: people with low self esteem tend to be more susceptible to
external and social influences than those who have high
Positive affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other
people, in a positive manner.
Negative affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other
people, in a negative light.
Proactive behaviour: taking initiative to improve current circumstances or
creating new ones.
Proactive personality: a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take
personal initiative across a range of activities and situations
and to effect positive change in ones environment.
General self efficacy: a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or
her ability to perform successfully in a variety of
Core self evaluation: a broad personality concept that consists of more specific
traits that reflects the evaluations people hold about
themselves and their self-worth
Learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that
occurs due to the practice or experience
Operant learning: learning by which the subject learns to operate on the
environment to achieve certain consequences
Reinforcement: the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours Positive reinforcement: the application of addition of a stimulus that increases or
maintains the probability of some behaviour.
Negative reinforcement: the removal of a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains
the probability of behaviour.
Performance feedback: providing quantitative or qualitative information on past
performance for the purpose of changing or maintaining
performance in specific ways.
Social recognition: informational acknowledgement, attention, praise,
approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from
one individual to group to another
Extinction: the gradual dissipation of behaviour following the
termination of reinforcement
Punishment: the application of an aversive stimulus following some
behaviour designed to decrease the probability of that
Observational learning: the process of observing and imitating the behaviour of
Self efficacy: beliefs people have about their ability to successfully
perform a specific task
Self regulation: the use of learning principles to regulate one’s behaviour
OB modification: the systematic use of learning principles to influence