Organizational Behaviour (BHR221) Definitions.doc

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Bishop's University
Human Resources
BHR 221
Mike Teed

Organizational Behaviour Chapter 1 Organizations: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. Organizational Behaviour: the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations. Management: the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. Classical viewpoint: an early prescription of management that advocated high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making. Scientific management: system for using research to determine optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks. Bureaucracy: ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence. Hawthorne studies: research that illustrated how psychology and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment Human relations movement: a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs. Contingency approach: an approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation. Talent management: An organizations process for attracting, developing, retaining and utilizing people who the required skills to meet current and future business needs. Corporate social Responsibility (CSR): An organization taking responsibility for the impact of its decisions and actions on its stakeholders Chapter 2 Personality: the relativity stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment. Locus of control: a set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by external forces Self-monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships Self-esteem: the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation Behavioural plasticity: people with low self esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self esteem Positive affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive manner. Negative affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a negative light. Proactive behaviour: taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones. Proactive personality: a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in ones environment. General self efficacy: a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations Core self evaluation: a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflects the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth Learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to the practice or experience Operant learning: learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences Reinforcement: the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours Positive reinforcement: the application of addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour. Negative reinforcement: the removal of a stimulus that in turn increases or maintains the probability of behaviour. Performance feedback: providing quantitative or qualitative information on past performance for the purpose of changing or maintaining performance in specific ways. Social recognition: informational acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual to group to another Extinction: the gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of reinforcement Punishment: the application of an aversive stimulus following some behaviour designed to decrease the probability of that behaviour. Observational learning: the process of observing and imitating the behaviour of others Self efficacy: beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task Self regulation: the use of learning principles to regulate one’s behaviour OB modification: the systematic use of learning principles to influence
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