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Chapter 16 Notes.docx

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University of Ottawa

Chapter 16Social BehaviourRedDefinitionBlueImportant PointsGreenImportant PeopleContributions1Person Perception Forming Impressions of othersaEffects of physical appearanceiPeople tend to attribute desirable characteristics such as sociable friendly poised warm competent and well adjusted to those who are good looking Research on physical variables in person perception indicate that facial features that are similar to infant features influence perceptions of honesty babyfaced people being viewed as more honestbCognitive schemasiPeople use social schemas organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people to categorize people into types cStereotypesiStereotyping is a normal cognitive process involving widely held social schemas that lead people to expect that others will have certain characteristics because of their membership in a specific groupiiGender age ethnic and occupational stereotypes are common dPrejudice and discriminationiPrejudice is a negative attitude toward a person because of group membership iiDiscrimination is an action iiiMemory biases are tilted in favor of confirming peoples prejudices Transmission of prejudice across generations occurs in part due to observational learning and may be strengthened through operant conditioningeSubjectivity in person perceptioniPerson perception is a subjective process Stereotypes may lead people to see what they expect to see and to overestimate how often they see it illusory correlation iiResearch on the illusion of asymmetric insight or the tendency to think that ones knowledge of ones peers is greater than peer knowledge of oneself also supports the subjectivity of person perceptionfEvolutionary perspectivesiEvolutionary psychologists argue that many biases in person perception were adaptive in our ancestral past for example automatically categorizing others may reflect the primitive need to quickly separate friend from foe iiFurther evidence for the subjectivity of social perception is shown in the spotlight effect or the tendency to assume that the social spotlight shines more brightly on them than it actually does 2Attribution Processes Explaining behaviourAttributions are inferences that people draw about the causes of events others behaviour and their own behaviour
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