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MIS final exam review notes.docx

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Chapter 7 BUSINESS DRIVEN INFORMATION SYSTEMSDatabases and data warehouses are at the centre of all information systems discussed in this courseDatabases store the information necessary for day to day transactions operational levelData Warehouses store information for analysis and decision making management and strategic levelsBit Smallest unit of data binary digit 01Byte Group of bits representing a single character Fieldcolumn group of characters representing an attribute or characteristic or property Recordrow group of related fields describes an entity eg person event place about which information is storedFiletable or entity class group of related records of the same typeDatabase group of related filesData are raw facts that describe the characteristics of an eventInformation is data converted into a meaningful and useful contextInformation granularityrefers to the extent of detail within the information fine and detailed or coarse and abstract Levels Formats GranularitiesBefore databases we had flat files with the following problemsoData redundancy same data stored in more than one locationoProgramData Dependence changes in programs required changes to the dataoLack of Flexibility only routine reports hard to obtain adhoc reportsoPoor security little knowledge of who is accessing or making changes to the data oLack of data sharing no sharing of data between different applications or parts of the organizationTransactional data encompasses all of the data contained within a single business process or unit of work primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasksAnalytical information encompasses all organizational information primary purpose is to support the performing of higherlevel analysis tasksLow Quality Information Example Missing infoIncomplete infoInaccurate infoProbable duplicate info1Potential wrong infoHigh Quality Information Example Accurate is the name spelled correctlyComplete is the address complete street city province postal codeConsistent does the total field equal the total of the individual fieldsUnique are there any duplicate customersTimely is information updated weekly daily or hourlyA databasemaintains information about various types of objects inventory events transactions people employees and places warehousesit is a collection of data organized to serve several applications efficientlyDatabase models includeHierarchical database modelinformation is organized into a treelike structure using parentchild relationships in such a way that it cannot have too many relationshipsNetwork database modela flexible way of representing objects and their relationshipsRelational database modelstores information in the form of logically related twodimensional tablesEntity ROWS in tablesa person place thing transaction or event about which information is storedEntity class tablea collection of similar entitiesExampleCUSTOMER ORDER ORDER LINE DISTRIBUTOR and PRODUCT entity classes Attributes fields columnscharacteristics or properties of an entity classExample attributes for CUSTOMER entity includeCustomer IDCustomer NameContact NamePhonePrimary keys and foreign keys identify the various entity classes tables in the databasePrimary keya field or group of fields that uniquely identifies a given entity in a tableForeign keya primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tablesDatabase advantages from a business perspective includeIncreased flexibilityIncreased scalability and performanceReduced redundancy2
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