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Anatomy and Physiology
Joanna Komorowski

FINALEXAMREVIEWExtrinsic Innervation of the HeartHeartbeat is modified by the ANS Cardiac centers are located in the medulla oblongata of the brain stemCardioacceleratory center innervates SA and AV nodes heart muscle and coronary arteries through sympathetic neuronsCardioinhibitory center inhibits SA and AV nodes through parasympathetic fibers in the vagusCardiovascularControlCenterCVCCVCamedullaoblongataDepressorareadecreasesBPPressorareaincreasesBPbyinhibingnervescausingviavasoconstriconvasoconstriconVasomotorcenterinmedullaCardioinhibitorycenterCardioaccleraoncenterdepressesheartacvityisIncreasesHRisacvatedwhenassociatedwithvagusnervethepressorareaissmulatedHeart rate at rest A prepotential or pacemaker potential in a heart at restHeart rate under parasympathetic stimulationDecreased heart rate resulting when ACh released by parasympathetic neurons opens chemically gated K channels thereby slowing the rate of spontaneous depolarizationIncreased heart rate resulting when NE released by sympathetic neurons leads to the opening of ion channelsincreases the rate of depolarization and shortens the period of repolarizationElectrocardiographyElectrocardiographECGEKGa graphic record of electrical activity of the heartIt is a composite of all the action potentials generated by nodal and contractile cells at a given time Typically in a clinical setting12 leads 9 electrodes usedThree distinguishable waves1 P waveatria depolarization precedes atria contraction2 QRS complexventricular depolarization precedes ventricular contraction3 T wave ventricular repolarization takes place during ventricular excitationPQ intervalfrom the beginning of atrial excitation to the beginning of ventricular excitation atrial depolarization and contraction passage of depolarization to the rest of the conduction systemST segmentaction potential in plateaudepolarization of the entire vntricular myocardium
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