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Topic One--structural organization of the human body.docx

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Anatomy and Physiology
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Topic One Structural organization of the human body11Describe the levels of structural organization that makes up the human body111Define and give an example of each Plus organize in the hierarchy of anatomical structureatom the smallest particle of an element with the properties of that element Different parts of an atom are neutron proton and electronmolecule a combination of atoms that forms the smallest amount of a substance that can exist alone organelle molecules are associated in specific ways to form organelles Organelles are the basic components of living cells Ex Golgi apparatus nucleus mitochondria ribosome endoplasmic reticulum cell fundamental structuralfunctional unit of a living thing Cells vary widely in size and shape reflecting unique functions in the bodytissue a group of similar cells that have a common function 1Epithelium tissue covers the body surfacelines the body cavities2Muscle tissue provides movement3Connective tissue provides supportprotects the body organs4Nervous tissue provides a mean of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulsesorgan structure composed of at least 2 but usually 4 tissue types that performs a specific function for the body Ask if this is detailed enoughGive an example of an organ and describe how much of its tissue type contributes to its overall role or function in the bodyEx Hearta epithelium covers the heart muscle which serves the function of protecting the heart b muscle tissue allows the heart to contract and pump blood to the rest of the bodyc connective tissue provides support for the heartd nervous tissue impulses from the brain are transferred to the cardiac cells to stimulate it to contract at different pastes ex Resting and excersisingcauses the spread of the impulse to the entire cardiac tissue to establish coordinated contractions thus successful pumping of the bloodorgan system organs that work closely with one another to establish a common purposeExamplescirculatory system heart veins arteries capillaries blood 12Define the major structures and organelles found in the cell121DefineCell fundamental structuralfunctional unit of a living thing Cells vary widely in size and shape reflecting unique functions in the bodyNucleusCytoplasmPlasma membraneSemipermeable 122DefineCytosolOrganelle Cell inclusionList recognize and describe the functionrefer to diagram on pg 94 new textbookMitochondria provide most of the ATP supply of cells They cluster around where most of the action in the cell is Busy cells like kidney cells have lots of themRibosomes sites of protein synthesis in the cellMembrane bound ribosomes attach to endoplasmic reticulum and synthesise protein either for incorporation into cell membrane or lysosome for export from the cellRough Endoplamsic reticulum encloses proteins into vesicles to be sent to golgi apparatus for further modifications Smooth endoplasmic reticulum its enzymes catalyze a series of essential reactions Ex Break down stored glycogen to form free glucose synthesize cholesterol metabolize steroid based hormonesGolgi apparatus modify concentrate and package proteins and lipids made in the rER and destined for export from the cell Peroxisomes sacs containing a variety of powerful enzymes that neutralize free radicals look like small lysosomesLysosomes sacs containing digestive enzymes and digest a variety of things in the cell bacteria non functional organelles glycogen breakdown breakdown bone to release calcium
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