Study- Digestive system.docx

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Department
Anatomy and Physiology
Course
ANP1107
Professor
Joanna Komorowski
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture1DigestivesystemTwogroupsoforgans1AlimentarycanalgastrointestinalorGItractDigestsandabsorbsfood2AccessorydigestiveorgansstructuresMechanicalandchemicaldigestionoffoodTheAlimentaryCanalinanormalhealthyhumanadultmaleisapproximately7075metreslongsmoothmuscleskeepsittighterandcloserwhenalive9minacadaverThealimentarycanalisacontinuoustuberunningthroughtheventralbodycavityfrommouthtotheanusrectumDigestsfoodandbreaksitdownintosmallerfragmentsandabsorbsitsdigestedfragmentsthroughitsliningintothebloodThealimentarycanalconsistsofhowfoodtravlesthroughtbodyfrommouththeanusoralcavitymouthpharynxthroatesophagusstomachsmallintestinelargeintestineAmountoftimedependsonhowmuchfoodandkindThedigestivesystemaccessoryorgansstructuresMostnutrientsabsorbedinsmallintestineandwhateverisleftoverwillbeexpelledviaanusTeethinsidegastrointestinalsystemtakeslongerindigestionsystemifyoudontchewproperlyTongueinsidegastrointestinalsystemformationofbolusfoodmixedwithsalivaSalivaryglandsgivesmoisturetofoodsowecanswallowGallbladderproducesbilewhichleadstodigestionoflipidsLiverPancreasendocrinefunctionproducesinsulinandglycogenandreleasedtobloodexocrinefunctionreleaseenzymesproducesbicarbonatetomaintainpHParasiteinfestationsheddingandreleasingmorenutrientswhichisawasteGIFunctionsEssentialactivitiesoftheGI1Ingestiontakingfoodintothemouth2PropulsionswallowingvoluntaryandperistalsismovementoffoodthroughtheGItractbyrhythmiccontractionsandrelaxationsPeristalsisinvoluntarymajormeansorpropulsioninvolvingalternatewavesofcontractionandrelaxationintheorganwallssqueezesfoodalongthetractandsomemixingalsooccurs3Digestionbreakingoffoodintomoleculesthataresmallenoughtobeabsorbedamechanicaldigestionchewingmixingchurningsegmentationbchemicaldigestionenzymaticbreakdownoffood4AbsorptionpassageofdigestedfoodfromtheGItractintothebloodandlymph5DefecationeliminationofindigestiblesubstancesfecesfromtheGItractThoughtoffoodcanstartactionofdigestionreleasesalivaandgastrointestinaljuicesInactualprocessyoustartbyputtingfoodinyourmouthPartofdigestionsystemcontainsskeletalmuscleAfteryouswallowmovesdowntheesophagusandthenpropulsionstartsSalivacontainsamylasewhichstartsingestionofcarbsInmouthchemicalandmechanicaldigestionPropulsioninesophagusrelaxationandcontractionofsmoothmusclesFoodmixeswithgastricjuicesAcidityinstomachstopsdigestionofcarbsPepsinistheenzymeneededforthedigestionofproteinsStomachmechanicalandchemicaldigestionMixeswithjuicesandbilereleasedfromthegallbladderproducedfromtheliverOnlypropulsionintheesophagusChemicaldigestioninthesmallintestineFoodhastomoveandmixwithenzymesFrom mouth b Segmentation Nonadjacent segmentsa Peristalsis Adjacent segments ofof alimentary tract organs alternately alimentary tract organs alternately contractcontract and relax moving the food and relax which moves food along the tractforward then backward Food mixing and distallyall the way from esophagus slow food propulsion occursmainly in small intestineFigure 233 AdditionalGIfunctionsNutrientproduction
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