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Final

BIO 1130 Final: BIO 1130 - Final Exam - Keywords and Crosswords


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 1130
Professor
Jon Houseman
Study Guide
Final

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Proterozoic Eon
9+2 organization: Microtubules are in 9 pairs (doublet) around the outside and 1 pair (two
tubules) are on the inside.
Alternation of generations: Seen in plants, they alternate between haploid and diploid life
cycles. It starts with a sporophyte in the diploid phase and through meiosis the sporophyte
produces spores that go on to become gametophyte plants. These gametophytes release haploid
gametes that go through mitosis become a diploid zygote that becomes a diploid sporophyte,
repeat ad infinitum.
Ameboid (Amoeboid) movement: In amoebas, myosin is moving around and changing the cell
shape. It squeezes the cell to send cytoplasm forwards and converts plasma from endo (liquid) to
ecto (gel). The polymerization of actin controls the flow of cytoplasm. The actin monomers (they
are in solution, they are not formed strands!) are polymerized as liquid cytoplasm hits the hyaline
cap to make actin strands, which are rails for myosin to move along. (At the back of the amoeba,
the gel needs to go back to liquid?). The amoeba can instantly change direction by polymerizing
actin, this is myosin motors at work.
Asexual reproduction: Only one parent needed, offspring is clone of original.
Autotroph: An organism that takes carbon from CO2 and not through breaking C-C bonds.
Bacteria (Eubacteria): A domain of true bacteria, it has a peptidoglycan cell wall, its plasma
membrane is unbranched with ester links, it has operon genes, it uses simple RNA polymerase
for translation, it has no nuclear envelope, it has a circular chromosome, its DNA is not wrapped
in histones, and its first amino acid is formylmethione.
Bacteriophage: A virus that infects and replicates inside a bacteria, killing it.
Basal body: A centrosome at the base of a flagellum or cilia. It is formed from microtubules.
Bikont: Double centriole, two flagellum. One used for feeding, the other for moving. Can eat
things to gain their function (If it eats a photosynthetic bacteria, it now has plastids and
chloroplasts.)
Cellular division of labour: Each organelle in the cell has its own function
Cellular gliding: Centrioles push at the cell membrane, making it glide/creep along. The
microtubules would move the cytoplasm around the centriole extension resulting in a wiggle.
(This is not amoebic motion!)
Centriole: A centrosome at a pole. It has 9 triplets of circular tubulin proteins (microtubles)
arranged in a circular pattern. It directs assembly, making tubulin dimers attach or disassemble.
Centrosomes: A direct formation of microtubulin. Centrioles and basal bodies are both
centrosomes.
Chloroplast: An organelle in plant cells (and eukaryotic algae) that conducts photosynthesis by
absorbing sunlight and using it with water and CO2 to produce nutrients for the plant. It makes
and uses ATP.
Choanoflagellate: A unicellular eukaryote with a flagellum. It is the closest living relative of an
animal, and all animals descended from something like this. It has a funnel collar made of
microvilli and a flagellum at the centre that moves water so that it flows through the microvilli
fingers and particles get trapped in the microvilli and are consumed through phagocytosis.
Cilia: Made out of microtubules. Like a flagellum but they are much shorter and there can be
hundreds to thousands of cilia over the cell surface. It has a 9+2 structure and is used for
locomotion and feeding. Cilia are very agile and create very precise, smooth movement but they
can’t move all at once so they have to move in a metachronal wave.
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Cirrus (pl. cirri): A bunch of long, thin structures in animals.
Contractile vacuole: A vacuole that can fill and dispose of water to prevent the cell from
rupturing. Seen in the paramecium whose cytoplasm is saltier than the water it lives in the
contractile vacuole is in a star shape, and water is pumped into the vacuole from the cytoplasm
using ATP. The water is then periodically expelled from the vacuole to outside the cell?
Crossing over: When sister chromatids on different chromosome pairs exchange DNA. The
chromosome arms entangle and then break off. When they re-attach, the segment from the other
arm attaches to the original arm. This allows for a large amount of genetic variability.
Cytoskeleton: Made of microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments (in a eukaryote
cell), it gives the cell shape and some rigidity.
Diploid: Has chromosomes from two parents (2n).
Diplontic: An organism that spends the vast majority of its life as diploid. It has only a very
short haploid phase that occurs between meiosis and fertilization. Animal-like protists are
diplontic.
Dyenin molecular motor: A motor protein that walks along the microtubule towards the
centriole (the negative end). Tyenin arms are attached to one microtubule of a doublet and its feet
are attached to the other microtubule of the same doublet, making the microtubule move up and
down (makes the flagellum bend back and forth).
Ectoplasm: The outer part of the cell’s cytoplasm. It is gel like rather than liquid like. It is non-
granulated.
Endomembrane system: Divides the cytoplasm into functional and structural components
(organelles). In eukaryotes it includes the nuclear membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi
apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, endosomes, and cell membrane. It does not include the
membranes of mitochondria or chloroplasts.
Endoplasm: The inner part of a cell’s cytoplasm. It is more liquid than gel and is often
granulated.
Endosymbiosis: Symbiosis inside a cell. This theory explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from
prokaryotes. It says that different organelles came to be inside a cell because a eukaryote would
eat other eukaryotes and gain the new organelles from the ingested bacteria.
Eukarya: A domain that doesn’t include prokaryotes (only eukarya!), sister group to Archea.
Their cell wall is made from cellulose, chitin or they don’t have one, their plasma membrane is
unbranched with ester links, they have no operon genes, they use complex RNA polymerases for
translation, they have a nuclear envelope, they have multiple linear chromosomes, they have
histones wrapped around their DNA, and their first amino acid is methionine.
Flagellum: Made out of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement. A cell will have either 1 or 2 and
they are very long. They can be used for locomotion (wiggle) or feeding.
Formylmethione: The first amino acid of eubacteria (a derivative of methionine).
Gametocyte: A germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes, or into gametids during
gametogenesis. Male gametocytes are spermatocytes and female gametocytes are oocytes.
Gametophyte: A multicellular haploid structure, it develops from a spore and it produces
haploid gametes through mitosis. The gametophyte is what a plant is during the haploid phase.
Haploid: When a cell only has half the usual number of chromosomes. It usually occurs after
meiosis when the chromosome number is halved, however some organisms are haploid for
nearly all or half of their lives instead of just for a short period of time.
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Haplontic: A type of life cycle where the organism spends the majority of its life as haploid,
only going through a very short diploid phase between fertilization and meiosis. Fungi undergo
this life cycle.
Heterotroph: An organism that gets its carbon from organic compounds by breaking C-C bonds.
Histone proteins: Proteins that package and order DNA into nucleosomes. DNA winds around
histones.
Host: An organism that a parasite lives within and feeds off.
Kynesin molecular motor: A motor protein that walks along the microtubule away from the
centriole (the positive end).
Macronucleus: A large nucleus in ciliates, it is polyploid (many chromosomes) and undergoes
division without mitosis. It controls non-reproductive cell functions and can work at high
volumes due to its large size (e.g. Fast metabolism)
Malaria: A disease caused by the parasites in the genus Plasmodium. It hase three complicated
life stages (gametocyte, sporozoite, merozoite) all driven by a single-celled organism. A
mosquito will ingest gametocytes from someone’s blood. The gametocytes will become gametes
inside the mosquito and will then become zygotes which embed in the mosquito stomach lining
and immediately undergo meiosis to produce sporozoites. The sporozoites migrate to the salivary
glands and are spit into the blood of the next organism the mosquito chooses to feed on (The
mosquito’s saliva prevents coagulation of blood). The sporozoites are now in the human where
they travel into the liver and get stuck there, and undergo mitosis. They become schizonts which
asexually reproduce in a process called schizogony. When there are enough, they burst out of the
liver and into the blood as merozoites where they find an RBC to attach to. The merozoite
invades the RBC and changes its own morphology into a trophozoite (feeding form) which feeds
on the hemoglobin and increases its number (can be 50 to 1000 trophozoites in one RBC).
Eventually, the RBC will burst and release the trophozoites which become merozoites again and
the cycle continues. Also, some of the merozoites become gametocytes during gametogony, and
these gametocytes can be ingested by a mosquito and passed onto another human. Back to the
rupturing RBCs. The ruptures are timed, so 20% of a body’s RBCs can all burst at once,
drastically reducing oxygen carrying capacity and resulting in fever and chills. These symptoms
will attract more mosquitos which will pass on the parasite. Mosquitos are drawn to CO2
emissions and humidity in victims, so the parasite manipulates the physiology of the host (heavy
breathing, sweating) to attract mosquitos.
Meiosis: Cell devision that occurs during sexual reproduction. The chromosome numbers are
reduced by half resulting in four daughter cells.
Merozoite: The form of the plasmodium parasite when they are released into the blood stream.
Metachronal wave: Like a crowd doing “the wave”, the cilia of a cell move slightly out of sync
(in a volley movement) so that there is an even amount of forwards thrust at all times, giving
smooth movement to the cell.
Methionine: The first amino acid in domains Eukarya and Archaea.
Micronucleus: The small nucleus in ciliates. It puts aside a special diploid copy of the genome
for use in mating which is usually only seen in animals.
Microtubules: A component of cytoskeleton, it is a tubulin polymer (microtubulin!). The strands
of tubilin polymers are aligned end to end in a cylindrical form. Those strands become the
cytoskeleton of the cell. Spindle fibers are microtubules! Microtubules are roads for molecular
motors to walk up or down.
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