BIO 3102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Null Hypothesis, Transitional Fossil, Nuclear Transmutation
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Ages of sand: - Douglas Adams - 4 Stages (Telescope, Microscope, Computer Chip, Fiber Optics) - Revolutionized Science
Al-Dinawari: - Botanist (Dealt with Plants) - Created Book of Plants - Did work in Philosophy as well as Theology
Alhazen: - Worked with Optics - Contributed to the use of Scientific Experiments(Through Scientific Method) - Mathematician and
Al-Jahiz: - Came up with Theory of Evolution before Darwin - Wrote book of animals
Aristotle: - Contributed to Geology, Physics and the ways of thinking - Organized world by creating Scala Naturae (System for
ranking organisms) - Discovered living and non living things
Artificial Taxonomy: - Recorded rules of classification and organization (as opposed to folk taxonomy where classifications were
passed by word of mouth)
Avicenna: - Dealt with Medicine - Took Hippocratic Corpus and added medical practises of India - Worked off Hippocrates
Binomen: - Binomial nomenclature: - Created by Linnaeus - The system of nomenclature using two terms, the first one indicating
the genus and the second the species. (In italics and Latin) - Categorizes all Organisms
Biogeography: - The study of the geographic distributions of plants and animals
Chronological prediction: - Predicting what will happen in the near future based on simple guesses from knowledge or events.
(E.x Will probably have spaghetti because I made spaghetti sauce)
Classification: - An arrangement of organisms into hierarchical groups that reflect their relatedness
-Control: Affecting one factor/thing while not affecting the other for observance
-Cuvier, Georges: French zoologist that began phyla, the field of comparative biology, and the concept of extinction (examined
fossils of extinct animals and believed they were wiped out by fast imminent changes/catastrophes)
-Deduction: A logical reasoning identifying resemblances to accepted facts
-Empirical Observation: An observation based on results verifiable through practical experience/experimental results
-Essentialism: Belief that began in ancient Greece that claimed every organism has a certain quality that gives them life
-Extinction: State/process where a species ceases to exist
-Fact: An observation, accepted as true and confirmed repeatedly, yet never considered final truth
-Folk Taxonomy: A classification of things based on their practical, not scientific criteria. First taxonomy used, included such
things as oral communication of information and a single person in the community that was responsible for keeping lists of
-Great Chain of Being: AKA Scala Naturae, a concept derived from Plato and Aristotle that lists organisms and beings of faith
(such as gods or angels) in order of importance decreed by the divine.
-Harvey: Father of Physiology. Discovered the function of blood, circulatory system, arteries, ventricles, etc.
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-Hierarchical system: A system comprised of subsystems that may themselves be made up of subsystems that organize subjects
-Hippocrates: Father of Medicine. Physician that collected works/thoughts of everyone in his field and produced the Hippocratic
Corpus, a compendium for distribution. He also turned Medicine into its own type of philosopher's thought
Historical Narrative: Early biological sciences were all based on narratives and stories - word descriptions of the phenomena that
were occurring in the world around us. People created logical arguments in a written form, describing things that they observed,
why they were this way and how this information could be confirmed. Biologists were shrugged off as naturalists who told stories.
Hypothesis: Come from literature readings, observations, and exchange of data. As more and more data is added to hypotheses,
they become theories. The general public is skeptical about hypotheses and they don't see all the work that is put into them -
they see it as scientists just making guesses.
Ibn Al-Baitar: Pharmaceutical and medicinal properties of plants - creates a pharmacological view of the plants.. how to prepare
them and doses to administer - just before the plague hits Europe.
Induction: Most used method in the natural sciences. They make many observations, then try to develop a general rule for how
something works (confirmation).
Industrial Melanism: The first real evidence of evolution. Before the industrial revolution the trees were white and there were a
majority of white moths, after the industrial revolution the trees turned black and the majority of the moths were black. The colour
change of the moths was a result of them being visible on the trees - they were getting eaten therefore their genes could not be
passed on so only the "fit" survived.
Lamarck (Jean-Baptiste): Transmutation (rapid change) of species. He believed in the inheritance of acquired traits - if you had a
certain trait, you would pass that on to your offspring (fast runners give birth to fast runners). He says that there is a gradual
change in species over time, that there is some mechanism to transfer from one generation to the next, and that not everything
arrived at once. His one major flaw was that he had no idea about the role of egg and sperm - meiosis.
Law: Laws are universal - they apply within and can be tested anywhere in the universe. Evolution is a theory and not a law
because it is not universally applied.
Linnaean Taxonomy: Linnaeus created a hierarchical system which is referred to as mechanical taxonomy - it is mechanistic.
Linnaeus (Carolus): Very important - he created one of the taxonomies and binomial nomenclature. He took all of the written
descriptions of the organisms that had been catalogued to the world at that point in time and organized them - but he didn't use
the scala. He organized them into a serious of nested categories. Gives us a hierarchical system - it was predictive - this was his
Mechanical taxonomy - creates 6 classes of animals. Didn't find phylum or family.
Logical Prediction: Type of prediction that science uses. It is based on data and a whole series of observations - basically what a
Mechanical taxonomy: classification based on the physical characteristics of an organism, created by Linnaeus and uses
binomen (ex. Ursus arctis). Used in the systema naturae.
Middle Ages: the little ice age killed off many people and documents for about 300 years. Old documents had been translated
into Arabic so they are still in existence just not for the whole world. Brought an age to the planet and addition of angels and god
to Scala Naturae.
Natural Sciences: study of animate things on earth alone, using less mathematics and instead based in historical narratives.
Multiple theories are used to describe one thing.
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