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BIO 3102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Nitrogen Fixation, Lipopolysaccharide, Heterotroph

Course Code
BIO 3102
Study Guide

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1. Review slides
2. Give 3 points for each key term (below)
3. become familiar with the crosswords
4. Do break questions
5. Do past mid terms
6. Do it again
Key Term section (Archean & Proterozoic)
Archean Eon
- Bacteria that uses a type of respiration that uses O2 as the final electron acceptor (aerobic
- Allows for greater amount of energy from food molecules than anaerobic respiration
-Obligate aerobe can’t survive without oxygen
- Type of bacteria that that does not use O2 as their final electron acceptor (anaerobic respiration)
- Instead use metals , nitrate or sulphate as final electron acceptors - Obligate anaerobes can’t
survive in the presence of oxygen
Antibiotic resistance:
-ِAbility of a bacteria to resist antibiotics
- Bacteria has 4 mechanisms that make it this way (
1. Gram negative bacteria have an outer membrane of liposaccharides - very sturdy and
resistent polymer.
2. Sticky capsules acts as an extra layer to protect the bacteria from the antibiotics'
inhibition or degrading of the cell membrane
3. Horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance gene in the plasmid. - they spread the
antibiotic resistance gene.
4. Bacteria have alternative pathways when antibiotics inhibit one type.
- The ability to be inferrior to antibiotics and can be passed on
- Makes a disease very dangerous
- Domain of prokaryotes
- First found in extreme environments such as hot springs, hydrothermal vents, the ocean floor
and salt lakes (called extremophiles) - Share some cellular features with bacteria some with
eukaryotes and some are unique
ATP sythetase (synthase
- Membrane-spanning protein complex, molecular motor that spins as protons move through the
channel synthesizing ATP
-transports protons across an energetically favorable membrane to synthesize ATP -performs
oxidative phosphorylation or the catalysis of ATP synthesis

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- An organism that produces its own food using CO2 and other simple inorganic compounds -
Energy from the sun or from oxidation of inorganic or organic substances is required
Bacillus bacteria
- Rod like shaped
- Bacteria that cause food to spoil
Bacteria (Eubacteria)
-Prokaryotic organisms that have inhabited the world the longest
-Use a large variety of metabolic strategies
- Have round DNA located in the nucleoid region
- Have plasmid as extra DNA
-formylmethionine as the first amino acid in all peptide chains
Bacterial flagellum
- Powers the movement of the bacteria
- Important locomotive and adhesive organelle
- Therapy against antibiotic resistance bacteria
- bacteriophages consist of an outer protein hull enclosing genetic material
-Much smaller than the bacteria they destroy
- A virus
- Reproduces it self to shut down the host, then genetic code has information to shut it down, then
virus has bacterial DNA
Binary fission
- Most common form of reproduction in bacteria
- Asexual mode of reproduction - Bacterial cell divides after making copies of its
-daughters are exact copies
- A C G T
- There are 20 different building blocks - amino acids - used
- Humans have approximately 30,000 genes
-mucilaginous capsule forms a glycocalyx layer over the outer membrane-allows the bacterium to
stick to surfaces-results bacteria forming a bioflim <-important-acts as a defense against
phacocytosis against other organisms <-important (rather hard to engulf something stuck to a
Cellular respiration
- the process by which ATP is produced using the potential energy from food molecules
- Three stages of cellular respiration are Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle and the electron transfer
system which leads to oxidative phosphorylation - Occurs in all eukaryotes and many prokaryotes
Cellulose is the important constituent in plant cell walls. It is a structural carbohydrate.

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Cellulose is a polymer of beta glucose.
Cellulose molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds to form microfibrils and these form
cellulose fibres.
The cellulose in a cell is exported to its outer membrane by Golgi bodies.
The isomer of glucose that forms cellulose produces straight, unbranched molecules.
Other organisms with cell walls (bacteria and fungi) use other carbohydrate polymers to build
-Oxidize substances such as hydrogen, iron, sulphur, ammonia and nitrates as an energy source -
They use organic compounds for their carbon source
-Oxidize inorganic substances for an NRG source -Use CO2 for their source of carbon
-Organisms that use organic molecules as both sources of NRG and carbon - Examples are
animals and fungi
- Organisms that use organic molecules as sources of carbon and CO2 as their source of carbon
-The cell wall of Fungi is made of this
-major constituent of the exoskeleton, or external skeleton, of many arthropods such as insects,
spiders, and crustaceans.
- is a polysaccharides
Circular genome
-characteristic of Bacteria and Archea-plasmids can separate from the circular genome or being
reintegrated into it-
Coccal bacteria
-Eubacteria characterized by a spherical shape
- Exchange of genetic information involving plasmid and occasionally part of the bacterial
- Exchange through pilli as cytoplasmic connection - Method of antibiotic resistances transfer
through pathogenic bacteria
- First organisms to harness electrons from water by oxidization (oxygenic photosynthesis)
release oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis
- Gram negative autotrophs that are blue- green in colour - Use the same cholorphyll pigments as
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