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BIO 3102 Study Guide - Tracheid, Proterozoic, Supercontinent

Course Code
BIO 3102

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Biology, Biologist, Bioscience Keywords 11/01/2011
Ages of sand: Technological changes humanity went through that helped broaden our understanding.
Astronomy- in looking at the stars we discovered that the idea that the earth was the center of the
universe is false.
Microscopic- we were able to see tiny formations of life, which startled us.
Computers- the silicon chip gives us processes. The computer can perform mathematical
equations quicker than any human, which helps us to create models and simulations. Simulations give us
another perspective to view life.
Internet- can perform fiber optics. Enables us to be able to communicate with each other faster
than in any other period of time. (i.e. broadcasting/journalism).
Analogy: trait or organism that appears similar in two unrelated organisms.
-the ability to fly in birds and bats is a classic example. Both groups can move by powered flight,
but flight has evolved independently in two different groups.
-these sort of traits will rise because the organisms that live in different ways or have to face the
same environment factors.
-biological analogies are often due to the convergent revolution.
Binomen: the two part name of a species that consists of a genus name and a species name
-genus is capitalized, while both names are written in italics
-first introduced in 1953
Binomial nomenclature: formal system of naming living things in two parts (one of the names in
written in latin.
-first created by Linnaeus
- also included is the last name of the person that discovered it as well as its date of publication.
-must include factors of uniqueness, clarity, economy, and stability
-before this we had to give a complete description of the organism
Biogeography: the study of the distribution of species, organisms, and ecosystems in space through
geological time.
-animals move from site to site are forced to adapt to climate, geography, and environment.
-continental drift theory, overtime the continents drifter from one super continent pangea to the way
they are now.
-extinction, organisms can no longer adapt to the changes of its environment so the species stops

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-speciation, a new biological species arrives because the species divides when one can thrive in a
different environment
-glaciation, ice age cause some of the factors above
Catastrophe theory: something big must have happened to cause so many species to become
extinct. (essentialist view).
-many will say this is the big flood
-keeps the scala naturae signifigant, as well as the need for a deity.
-the explanation for the millions of fossils that were being found
- a sudden violent event
Cell theory: (Schleiden & Schwan microscopic obser., 1860)
-basic unit of all organisms is the cell, smallest attribute of life
-individual cells have all the characteristics of life
-all cells come from divisions of other cells
-schwan, sees neucleus every animal schleidon, sees the same but in plants
Chronological prediction:
Cladogram: branching diagram, the end represents different species. Use to demonstrate phylogenetic
relationships (ancestry).
-DNA and RNA sequences are used to generate sequences
-gather/ organize data
-consider possible cladograms
-select best cladogram
Common ancestry: (homology) look for similarities among species to determine how closely
related they are. *one of darwin’s 5 theories
-homoplasy (analogus)- convergent evolution ex. Flight has risen 4 times in history of the world
-comparative embryology, look at embryos to see how similar ex. Humans and fish (gills)
-vestigial structures, goose bumps and appendix
-molecules & genes, more common the genetic code the more closely related.

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Constancy of species: (species change over time not spontaneously as was once believed) *One of
darwin’s 5 theories
-fossils, invertibrates missing in fossil record.
-extinction, Massive extinctions at least 6 times in history of world, recorded in fossils. 99% of
organisms on the planet have vanished
-transitional forms, missing links in fossil records. Show adapt. Over time ex. The horse. (reptiles
begat birds)
-vestigial structure such as the wisdom, teeth appendix, goosebumps
Control: to purposely direct, manipulate, manage restrain or cause changes to.
-allows us to study one scientific variable at a time.
-helps conclusions be more accurate and reliable
Convergent evolution: same biological trait in an unrelated lineage
-the wing
-analogous, trait of organism that appears similar in two unrelated organisms
-homologous, it has evolved independently but from the same ancestral structure
-gives organisms specialized traits or skills needed to survive in their environment
Cuvier (Georges): studied fossils
-found common ancestries… African/Asian elephants related to mammoth
-first one to say animals disappeared (extinction) people thought they had just never seen all the
-theorized a catastrophic even that causes great number of species to disappear.
-racial studies the world has three races white, black, yellow, white is the most superior and black is
the least. Confusing because he believed we all descended from adam and eve (white).
Darwin (Charles): one of the fathers of evolution. Wrote manuscript on origins of diversity.
-No constancy of species (accepted immediately)
-Common ancestry (accepted immediately)
-gradual change (caused by natural selection)
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