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FINAL EXAM KEY WORDSMICROEVOLUTIONAllele one of two or more versions of a geneDifferent alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traitsEach trait has 2 allelesOne allelechromosome for diploid organismsGenetic variations in alleles can result in differences but can also remain unnoticeableAllele Frequency the abundance of one allele relative to others at the same gene locus in individuals of a population to describe genetic diversityCan be calculated by diving the number of alleles for a certain traitthe total number of individuals in the populationUsually expressed as proportions or a percentageDenoted as p or qAllopatric Speciation a reproductive isolating mechanism that results from geographical separation between 2 populationsA prezygotic mechanismPopulations evolve independently and diverge into 2 different speciesCaused by glaciers continental shifts etcAllopolyploidy having 2 or more complete sets of chromosomes from DIFFERENT parent speciesOnly plants are capable of allopolyploidy not animalsResults in a fertile hybridCan be created from previously sterile species ex bread wheatAutopolyploidy having 2 or more complete sets of chromosomes from the SAME parent speciesOnly possible by plants through selffertilizationArise from a failure in the meiotic processOften resemble parents but grow more slowly and flower laterBehavioural Isolationa prezygotic isolation process2 species do not mate because of differences in courtship behaviourAlso known as ethological isolationEx songs of bullfrogs fireflies sequences of bursts of light vary for different species of fireflies within males and femalesBeneficial Mutation a mutation that proves beneficial for the individual ex increases fitnessCan help withstand diseasesEx those who carry 1 allele of the sickle cell anemia disease are more resistant to malaria in area of the subsaharan AfricaBiological Species the concept of a species based on the ability of populations to interbreed and produce fertile offspringBasically a reproductively isolated gene poolNo universal agreement to what it isProblems with the concept how do you define a fossil speciesHow do you define populations that reproduce asexuallyex archae and bacteriaBottleneck Effect type of genetic drift that occurs when an event such as drought or intensixe selection pressure causes a population to significantly dwindle in sizeThe few survivors reproduce but there is limited genetic variabilityProblematic ie elephant seals tomatoes tasteChromosomal Inversion a chromosomal rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reverse end to endOccurs when a chromosome undergoes breakage with itselfOccurs in the arm of the chromosome does not involve the centromereDoes not usually cause abnormalities as long as the rearrangement is balanced with no extra genetic informationHowever increased production of abnormal chromatids result in heterozygous individuals a lowered fertility due to the production of unbalances gametesChromosomal Translocation rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomesie a piece of one chromosome breaks off and sticks to another chromosome2 types reciprocal and RobertsonianReciprocal 2 different chromosomes exchange placesRobertsonian a whole chromosome attaches to anotherstEX results in Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 the 21 chromosome has 3 chromosomes instead of 2Crossing Over recombination in meiosis when chromatids exchange segmentsIMPORTANCE genetic variabilityoccurs in prophase I known as synapsismatching regions on matching chromosomes break and then reconnect to the other chromosomeDeleterious Mutation a genetic mutation that proves to be harmful for the organismcauses errors in protein sequence making a partially functional or nonfunctional proteinwhen the protein plays a critical role in organism functioning it can be crucial a medical condition can resultgenetic disorderdeleterious mutations are often repaired by double checking system of the DNADiploidan organism that contains 2 sets of chromosomesgrow through cell division mitosis and reproduce by meiosis production of gametesexample animalsDirectional Selection type of selection in which individuals at one extreme of the phenotypic expression have a higher fitnessthe frequency of the phenotype becomes higher and is eventually fizedoccurs most often naturally under environmental changesex breeding for the most desirable trait ie the smallest possible chiuaua Disruptive Selection type of selection in which extreme phenotypes have higher fitnss than intermediate phenotypesresults in speciation
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