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Midterm

Bio1140 Midterm 2 questions.docx

6 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO1140
Professor
A L L

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Description
Distinguish between integrins and cadherins Integrins are integral transmembrane proteins that bind fibronectins and hence the extracellular matrix on the extracellular side of the membrane and bind via linking proteins to the cytoskeleton on the intracellular side of the membrane ie they link the cell to the extracellular matrixLike integrins cadherins are integral transmembrane proteins that bind via linking proteins to the cytoskeleton on the intracellular side of the membrane Extracellularly they recognize and bind to other cadherins to allow anchoring junctions to form ie they link cells together Distinguish between cyclic AMP and ATP ATP is the adenosine nucleoside with three phosphate groups attached that is used by cells for energy transfercAMP is synthesized from ATP by the membrane enzyme adenylyl cyclase It is a second messenger used in G proteincoupled receptor signalling pathways What is homeoviscous adaptation and why is it significant Homeoviscous adaptation refers to the adjustment of membrane phospholipid composition by an organism so as to maintain constant membrane fluidity in the face of changes in environmental temperatureIt is significant in accounting for how organisms maintain membrane fluidity as temperature changes and in accounting for the changes in membrane phospholipid composition that occur with changes in temperature What is the endosymbiont theory and why is it significant The endosymbiont theory suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as aerobic bacteria and cyanobacteria that were engulfed by a larger prokaryotic host cell and formed a stable symbiotic relationship with the host cellIt is significant in providing an explanation for the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts that accounts for the many similarities between mitochondriachloroplasts and bacteria Contrast and compare the basic structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using your analysis to explain why prokaryotic cells are typically 10 times smaller than eukaryotic cells in their largest linear dimension6 marksProkaryotic cells lack membranebound organelles whereas eukaryotic cells may include a number of different membranebound organelles such as mitochondria chloroplasts Golgi complex ER vesicles or vacuoles 1The presence of membranebound organelles in eukaryotic cells compartmentalizes the cytoplasm This reduces the number of molecules that are required to achieve the adequate concentration for biochemical reactions to occur 1The cell may not be able to synthesize sufficient molecules to achieve the adequate concentration for biochemical reactions to occur as cell size increases The presence of membranebound organelles in eukaryotic cells allows them to overcome this limitation which exists in prokaryotic cells 1Prokaryotic cells lack a cytoskeleton whereas eukaryotic cells may include microfilaments microtubules and intermediate filaments 1The presence of microtubules and microfilaments in eukaryotic cells together with the existence of motor proteins allows molecules vesicles and organelles to be moved around the cell rather than relying on diffusion 1Diffusion over long distances may not be sufficiently rapid to keep up with the requirements of the cell The presence of cytoskeletal transport systems in eukaryotic cells allows them to overcome this limitation which exists in prokaryotic cells 1Eukaryotic cells possess a membranebound nucleus in which the genetic material DNA is organized into discrete chromosomes together with protein By contrast although prokaryotic cells also possess genetic material that is DNA it is organized into a single circular chromosome that lacks protein and constitutes the nucleoid a region of the cell that is not bounded by a membrane 1Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells possess ribosomes for protein synthesis those of prokaryotic cells are smaller and simpler than those of eukaryotic cells OR Both
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