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LAB EXAM comparisons.pdf

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Jon Houseman

Squid Clam Mantle cavity and shell Chitinous Pen inside mantle is all that -bivalve shell (univalve folded in shape remains of shell, aids in protecting internalhalf) organs when mantle contracts Shell with 3 layers -mantle is conical piece of muscle tissue. Mantle surrounds body + -role for edge ofmantle is to lock/seal out secretes shell water at collar, cavity aids in jet propulsion Circular mantle, used for locomotion, pumps water Ctenidia/circulatory Pericardial cavity Pericardial cavity system Closed circulatory system - 1 heart in ancestral pericardial 3 hearts cavity, (2 brachial -> Body to ctenidia open circulatory system 1 systematic -> gills to rest of body 2 aorta that send blood to – each brachial heart connected to haemocoel where blood bathes pericardial gland) organs and tissues thru gils and -closed circulatory system into heart thru paired aorta Ctenidia: respiratory organ, no cilia - ctenidia collect particulate food (muscle contractions move water over from water, water flows into surface) has concurrent blood flow, less chamber inside ctenidia efficient than countercurrent flow Radula Role minimized due to No radula – filter feeders Beak – tearing, specialized, reduced, Feed with ctenidia chitinious, predatory Cephalization Eyes connected to central nervous system Cerebral ganglion, no brain 2 optic nerves, fused ganglion, Set of nerve cords that supply foot, Ganglia of tetraneural system have been another pair for visceral mass consolidated in brain not elsewhere: reason for giant axons, which connect brain to rest of body large nerve cord, olfactory system Brain Olfactory crests Dorsal visceral mass Dorso-ventrally elongated - but distance Compressed/flattened between head and foot is shorter Consequence: body lengthens Cephalopoda (head-foot) dorsal to ventral Muscular foot, Jet propulsion by pumping water thru Foot muscles burrow clam, locomotion funnel (modification of foot), closing collarAdductor muscles and elastic hinge to water ligament open and close shell, help it burrow Elongation of hydrostatic skeleton to penetrate substrate Symmetry Bilateral Bilateral Orientation Moves ventrally, dorsal side forward Ventral side burrows/forward Role of Cilia Ciliary sorting field Cilia on gill surface to trap food Cilia also found inmetanephridium ( the tubules carrying excretory waste from coelom) Cnidarian and Bryozoan zooid similarities and differences Cnidaria Bryozoa Colony growth, zooid types, -2 zooid types: gonozooids – for -one type of zooid (sometimes interconnections feeding, and gastrozooids – for autozooids are feeding, reproduction heterzooids have other
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