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CarboniferousIn the ocean survivors represent same phyla as seen before ex molluscs echinoderms sharks The biggest changes are the plants in terrestrial environment Carboniferous is time of massive primary productivity Will start raising the oxygen levels in the atmosphere Carboniferous coal forestsClub mossesGiant horse tailsTree fernsEvolutionary trend in plant life cyclesst1 had green algae where sperm swam to eggThen had bryophytes mosses start to see gametophyte supporting the sporophyteIn the ferns see one green plant that undergoes metamorphosis on its ownNext will come the gymnosperms where a case for the sperm is made pollen which will move through the air to fertilizeEvolution of plant vascular tissue started with the ferns which had cell connections between cells that grew end on end on end called Plasmadesmata The cells are supported by lignin and are hollow and connected by opening between them They connect directly to the leaves and directly to the roots This becomes the water transport system of the plantWhat they rely on evaporation up at the top will pull the fluids up through the plant through the vascular tissue from the rootsAs the lignin dies it becomes a reinforcing structure for the plant LigninHydrophobicrepels water Water does not react or stick to the lignin so lignin is the perfect wall for the vascular tube wallsIndigestiblecannot be broken down Consequence of this is theres no recycling of the plant tissues of the carboniferous This is why they fossilized and became coalIt is a bacterial and fungal toxinwont get anything growing inside the vascular systemTwo groups that will end up being able to break down ligninbacteria and fungi
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