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Bio midterm 2 review.docx

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University of Ottawa

1 Review slides2 Give 3 points for each key term below3 become familiar with the crosswords4 Do break questions5 Do past mid terms6 Do it againKey Term section ArcheanProterozoicArchean Eon Aerobic Bacteria that uses a type of respiration that uses O2 as the final electron acceptor aerobic respiration Allows for greater amount of energy from food molecules than anaerobic respirationObligate aerobe cant survive without oxygen Anaerobic Type of bacteria that that does not use O2 as their final electron acceptor anaerobic respiration Instead use metalsnitrate or sulphate as final electron acceptorsObligate anaerobes cant survive in the presence of oxygen Antibiotic resistanceAbility of a bacteria to resist antibiotics Bacteria has 4 mechanisms that make it this way 1 Gram negative bacteria have an outer membrane of liposaccharidesvery sturdy and resistent polymer2 Sticky capsules acts as an extra layer to protect the bacteria from the antibiotics inhibition or degrading of the cell membrane 3 Horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance gene in the plasmidthey spread the antibiotic resistance gene 4 Bacteria have alternative pathways when antibiotics inhibit one typeThe ability to be inferrior to antibiotics and can be passed on Makes a disease very dangerous Archaea Domain of prokaryotes First found in extreme environments such as hot springs hydrothermal vents the ocean floor and salt lakes called extremophilesShare some cellular features with bacteria some with eukaryotes and some are unique ATP sythetase synthase Membranespanning protein complex molecular motor that spins as protons move through the channel synthesizing ATPtransports protons across an energetically favorable membrane to synthesize ATP performs oxidative phosphorylation or the catalysis of ATP synthesis Autotroph An organism that produces its own food using CO2 and other simple inorganic compoundsEnergy from the sun or from oxidation of inorganic or organic substances is requiredBacillus bacteria Rod like shaped Bacteria that cause food to spoilBacteria EubacteriaProkaryotic organisms that have inhabited the world the longestUse a large variety of metabolic strategies Have round DNA located in the nucleoid region Have plasmid as extra DNAformylmethionine as the first amino acid in all peptide chains Bacterial flagellum Powers the movement of the bacteria Important locomotive and adhesive organelle Bacteriophage Therapy against antibiotic resistance bacteria bacteriophages consist of an outer protein hull enclosing genetic materialMuch smaller than the bacteria they destroy A virus Reproduces it self to shut down the host then genetic code has information to shut it down then virus has bacterial DNA Binary fission Most common form of reproduction in bacteria Asexual mode of reproductionBacterial cell divides after making copies of itsgenomedaughters are exact copies A C G T There are 20 different building blocksamino acidsused Humans have approximately 30000 genes Capsulemucilaginous capsule forms a glycocalyx layer over the outer membraneallows the bacterium to stick to surfacesresults bacteria forming a bioflim importantacts as a defense against phacocytosis against other organisms important rather hard to engulf something stuck to a surface Cellular respiration the process by which ATP is produced using the potential energy from food molecules Three stages of cellular respiration are Glycolysis Citric acid cycle and the electron transfer system which leads to oxidative phosphorylationOccurs in all eukaryotes and many prokaryotes CelluloseCellulose is the important constituent in plant cell walls It is a structural carbohydrate
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