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BIO Key Terms 1 word.doc

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BIO1130 Key Terms 1Convergent evolutionHomoplasySimilar traitsfunctions yet different ancestorAnalogous TraitsDifferent organisms adapting to their environments in similar waysdifferent to similarDivergent evolutionHomologySpecies share a common ancestorShare similar traits that have evolved in variations depending on their environmentTransition fossilssimilar to differentAges of SandDouglas AdamsSand silica the building block for many devices tools that have lead to great scientific advancementdiscoveryevolutionThere are 4 distinct ages of sand1Telescope 1608 Sand ground to form glass and make lenses that allow us to look into the distance and observe the universe and the planets in our solar system This age is associated with the scientific revolution2Microscope 1678 Glass lens to look into the smaller world revealing the cell the fundamental unit of all living things3Computer chip 1961 silica based computer chip gives science access to computation strengths permitting the analysis of data Mathematical models of biological systems ecosystem structures unraveling the evolutionary history of organisms is now possible4Fiber Optics 1980s Transmission of huge amounts of date scientists can work together on global scale problemsAnalogyA trait or an organ that appears similar in two unrelated organismsOften the result of convergent evolution where different species live in similar ways andor similar environment and thus face the same environmental factorsThe ability to fly in birds and batsflight evolved independently in the 2 groups Opposite is homology where the ability or organ has been inherited from a common ancestorHomoplasy from Greek same formBinomenTwopart unique name of a speciesConsists of generic name for the genus and a specific descriptive word epithet for the speciesFrom Greek therefore typeset in italicsOnly generic name is capitalized ie Canis lupusBinomial NomenclatureForm of biological classification devised by Linnaeus in his Systema NaturaeTaxonomic hierarchyStandardized way of naming living thingsgrouping like organisms together based on similar and distinguishing traitsPredictability within the organization of these categoriesBiogeographyThe study of living things in different geographical locationssimilarities differences common ancestors adaptation to geographyComte de Buffon noticed different animals in different locations carrying out the same tasksfirst to state there had been change within speciesDescendants Notion of sharing a common ancestorCatastrophe TheoryLarge scale catastrophes are the cause of mass extinctionCan be observed through fossils in the various layers on earthCuvier believed that change occurred suddenly opposed the theory of gradual changeCell TheorySchleiden and Schwann 1860The basic unit of all organisms is the cellIndividual cells have all the characteristics of lifeCells come from the division of other cellsCan exist by itself as an organism or be massed in many millions of cells with different roles and functions in a large multicellular organismChronological PredictionGeneral publics definition of predictionactually being able to predict the futureNot so much possible in scienceAstrology horoscopes etcCladogramDiagram used in cladistics to show the ancestral relations between organismsEvolutionary relationships between organismsRepresents the evolutionary tree of lifeCan represent morphological characteristics or DNARNA sequencing variationsCommon AncestryOne of Darwins theories of evolution that was originally accepted by the publicAll species are connected through a common ancestor that changed gradually over time due to the impact of the environmentOrganisms share many similar structures both anatomically and morphologically many of which have become hidden over timeEvidence comparative anatomy homology divergent evolution comparative embryology biogeography molecules
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