Roman Civ Midterm Review
Map now has cities
o Only the ones mentioned in class
o Still need to know provinces
CLA 1102 February 3 rd
264 BC. A group of Mercenaries (Greece used them) they desert and go to a city called Massena in Sicily.
These people are trying to figure out what to do, one group of them thinks that they should go help the
Carthaginians. The other group thinks they should call to Rome. They end up inviting both of them in.
As a result, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean are brought face to face over a petty
squabble. Neither Cartridge nor Rome wants a war. Ultimately the Roman Senate decides to go. 4 things
that convince them to go are
1 They need to protect the huge commercial interest of their geek allies. If the Carthaginians come
in and take over Sicily, that will disrupt their commercializing with these Greeks. (Economic)
2 Sicily is a good base for invading Southern Italy, and you don’t really want hostile societies to live
there. Ideally, the Greeks should have all of Sicily (defense)
3 Military glory. Cartridge is the military battle at this point so defeating them would look really
4 As Rome gets bigger, they run out of places to conquer, so another war would be good financially,
since the spoils are a good source of income. (Financial)
What happen are Rome moves much more quickly, solve the problem, and decide to go from there and take
all of Sicily from the Carthaginians. We now have the beginning of what is referred to as the first Punic
War. Punic just means Carthaginian. This war lasts for 24 years, 264241 BC.
Rome had never seen a battle ship, where as Cartridge had the best navy power of the time. Rome
must get a hold of a wrecked Carthaginian battle ship, took it and got a whole bunch of Greek ship builders
and in 60 days they built 100 copies of this ship. They decide to drive their ships next to their ships, flip
great bid wooden platforms out to hook onto their ships to turn the sea battle into a land battle.
So during this war, Rome lost 2 battles. One was on land in Africa in 255 BC. The other was at
sea in 249 BC just off the Greek city of Drepanum. So surprising was this loss that we know all of the
details of the loss. The Admiral was a P. Claudius Pulcher. The Romans never do anything unless they
have the approval of t he Gods. Every command chip has a cage with sacred chickens, and when you want
to go to the battle you get some grain and you give it to the chickens. IF they eat it that means yes, if they
don’t eat it that means no you can’t go to war because the Gods aren’t on their side. The chickens didn’t
eat it for P. Claudius Pulcher so he gets angry and throws the chickens overboard. They go to battle and
they lose 93 of 120 ships. They flee and on he way home they run into a storm, which destroys the rest of
the ships. When he returns he is prosecuted, but acquitted of treason but heavily fined. Hamilcar Barca
was Carthage number one general, they bring him in the end but he can’t help them either. 241 BC the
Romans beat them at their own game, capture Sicily completely and make Sicily their first province.
Then in 237 BC they then take Sardinia and Corsica from the Carthaginians and make these islands
their second and third provinces. Now, Rome stars to expand North into Sis Alpine Gaul (All of
Northern Italy). Illyricum, the first place they attack. They now start to attack southern Gaul and Northern
Spain; they’re trying to make sure all of their borders are friendly. In 237BC Carthage turns to Spanish
conquest. Hamilcar Barca and his 3 sons go the South of Spain to conquer Spain. They discover the
mines. They start working the mines and start making HUGE profits. As they go, they conquer further and
further north. Rome was sort of heading that from the North, while the Carthaginians are going from the South to the North. In 226 BC they made a treaty so that the River Ebro would be the boundary between
Carthaginian and Roman territory.
Rome and Carthage in 226 agree that they would not go south and North of each other and keep
their own spheres.
Rome makes an ally with Saguntum
Hamilcar Barca, dies and his son Hannibal, see’s that this is a perfect time to attack Rome
In 219 Hannibal attacks Saguntum, and besieges it.
It falls in 218, they of course have sent to Rome for help, and when it falls Rome has to fight this
war against Carthage. So what happens is that they send their troops to Massilia (Marseille), and
send them down to Spain
Hannibal actually takes his troops and send them to Italy
He takes his troops through the Alps in the winter, along with his elephants
o 20,000 infantry
o 6,000 cavalry
o 37 Elephants
o He lost 13,000 men just crossing the Alps.
o Once crossed, he meets the Gauls, and Gaul joins Hannibal against Rome
The Romans still think he is in Spain, but then find outs
In 218, they have the first battle against Rome and Hannibal, the Battle of Ticinium, in Cisapline
o He is able to defeat the Romans
o But the Allies still stay loyal
Hannibal still goes South to Trebia
o Rome is able to regroup quickly and fight Hannibal
Hannibal again defeats Rome, and kills over 30,000 Romans
o All of the Northern Italy declares allegiance to Hannibal
In 217 they have the battle of Lake Trasimene, and Hannibal wins again and 40,000 Romans are
In 216, we have the Battle of Cannae
o This is the greatest defeat Rome has ever suffered
At least 65,000 Romans were killed
Some of the Southern Allies like Capua and Syracuse and Sicily go towards Hannibal’s side
All of the full citizenship and central allies do not shake at all, and stay allies with Rome
Hannibal stays in Capua
In 215 he gets support from King Philip the 5 from Macedonia, and Syracuse
By 212, all the Southern allies go to Hannibal’s side
The Romans use a new tactic
o Roman commander Quintos Fabius Maximus, says that every time we fight him we get
defeated, so we don’t fight him
o He invents guerilla tactics
Let begin a war of Attrition, lets cut off his supplies
o Spain o Capua
The Romans cut off all the supplies,
o Quintos Fabius Maximus, devised this new policy of guerilla tactics, scorched earth
policy, so there is no one to help in
So what happens Hannibal is now cut off from his supplies
In 207, Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal makes a last ditch attempt to get men and supplies to him,
he comes over through the Alps, and then enters Italy
The Romans were waiting at the Metaurus, and a general C. Claudius Nero is ready to fight him,
and they stop him completely, and they kill Hasdrubal, cut off his head, and send it to Hannibal
Massilia (where the Roman armies went to originally fight Hannibal).
Since they’re there, they choose to fight Spain anyways. Things go well for Rome, they have 2
generals, P. Scipio brothers
In 211 there is a disastrous defeat and the army is defeated and both brothers are killed. The son
of one of them, Publeus Scipio decides to take up the command and go back to Spain to avenge
the defeat of 211.
He ends up being a better general and is able to finish the conquest of Spain in 206. He drove the
Carthaginians from Spain. Rome was also fighting on a third front; they send an army in 215 to
Sicily to attack Syracuse since they betrayed them. They conquer Syracuse in 212. Archimedes
was defending Syracuse.
The king had received a crown and he couldn’t tell if it was pure gold or not. He asks
Archimedes to find a way to figure out how much gold is in that crown. So Archimedes works all
day, has no way of finding it, then he sits in his bathtub and notices that as he goes into the tub he
sees the water goes up. So he discovers weight mass and stuff. They had this big crane thing that
would pick up ships and flip them which really impressed the Romans so they wanted Archimedes
to make them this invention. So this roman solider comes across this guy who was drawing
pictures in the sand. He trips over that guy and gets so angry he kills him. The man drawing the
pictures was Archimedes designing a new invention. It took them until 210 to fully clean up
Syracuse. The Romans decide to open a fourth front, they choose to attack Macedonia Illyricum,
First Macedonian War it time as the second Punic war. They have an alliance with the Greeks to
the South for this war. They are regaining their allies in the north and the south, helping push
Hannibal backs out. These four fronts required 200 ships and 25 legions. 150 000 men every
year. Meanwhile, Hannibal hasn’t been able to make any progress in Italy. Going further and
further South as Rome gets back more and more territory in the North. He eventually gets pushed
into the toe of the boot of Italy. Scipio decides to take the fight (what’s left of his army) to
Carthage in 204.
In 203 the Carthaginians recall Hannibal to Africa. In 202 they meet near Zama to fight. The
battle is long, hard fought and for the first time Hannibal is defeated. With this defeat, we have the
surrender of Carthage in 202. Scipio takes the name Africanus since he defeated Africa (the
territory, not the continent as we call it).
It takes until 201 for the final peace treaty to be settled, so 201 are the official end of the war of
Zama. Carthage loses its entire fleet, no war ships. They lose all of their territories outside of
Africa, and they have to pay a huge war indemnity to war for a period of 50 years. Hannibal is not
killed in the battle and flees to the East after the war. Eventually the king he is with won’t hand
him over to the Romans, but they make him an offer he can’t refuse to Hannibal poisons himself
by drinking bull’s blood and dies before they can take him. The end of the Second Punic War
brings an end to the Early Republic. We now have a fairly short period called the Middle
Republic. Once the war was over they kept their immense military power. So now they have to
go and reconquer all of Northern Italy. Rome turns Spain into 2 provinces in 197: Hispania
Citerior and Hispania Ulterior (further away from Rome). It actually takes Rome 200 years to
conquer Spain entirely.
Spain in particular caused problem for the Romans
o They got divided into 2 provinces Hispania Citerior
167 Illyricum is made a province on the other side of Rome
Alexander the Great had created an empire but died, and his generals came together to create
Philip the 5 of Macedonia was going for the Greek’s as well as, fighting the Romans
When Philip goes after the Greeks, Rome backs up the Greeks
The Second Macedonian War happens between 200197 BC. The final battle of that war is
known as the battle of Cynoscephalae. Philip dies in 197.
Rome helps the Greeks and then leaves
This is quite different then what is going on in Spain.
Antiochus the III, a Seleucid king, in Asia Minor. He is the King of Syria (turkey, and a handle of where
Syria is now)
In this war which runs from 192189, Antiochus wants to add Greece to his territory, and he is
defeated at the Battle of Magnesia when the Romans come back and help out the Greeks
With this victory it really shows Rome’s power
Rome is looking like a good neighbour to Greece
They could attack others to justify their defense, and then have the Slaughtering wars in Spain
Throughout all of these wars, they need to effectively introduce a military machine
o The most important part behind this was the fact that they could call upon free
manpower, that’s because we have to look back at all the treaties they had signed with.
o The allies had to supply troops for free; Rome had 25 legions that they didn’t need to pay
By about 200165, the Roman Army is about 130,000
o These alliances paid off, and Rome could afford to use war as a policy instrument (i.e.
You don’t like it, fine, ill throw 10 legions at you)
Macedonia continues to cause problems
This starts the 3 Macedonian war 171168
o The Battle of Pidna, Macedonia loses
4 Macedonia war 141138
o Deals with Macedonia finally
Meanwhile while this is happening, Carthage is growing stronger and stronger
This war they start Carthage they start the 3 Punic war, from 149146
The city was sacked burned, and raised to the ground, and then buried into the ground. Carthage
was fithlly destroyed
The 4 Macedonian war was going on at the same time
o Meanwhile while they are doing this the Achaean league began to revolt, it was the
league of all the Greek cities, the Achaean’s see their land getting smaller and smaller and
the Romans crush them in 146
o Corinth was the city that Rome goes after, Rome sacks it and burns it to the ground
o He sticks both of them together, and in 146 they create the province created out of
Macedonia and Achaea, they call it Macedonia
o After they had destroyed Carthage all of Africa was created into a Roman Province
o The Romans began to ship back Greek art from the sacked cities
o They had a catalogue of all the Greek art, and they had roman artist make copies of it for
Once Greek had been captured, the people of Greece had been captured by the people that were
Rome after the wars: 1. Remember back to Rome’s war in Italy, what they did with this guerilla warfare, was the scorched
Earth policy, so Hannibal couldn’t get any food or supplies, but once he goes they have a serious
problem down south.
2. Most of the soldiers that we were talking about, they were provided for free, but what that meant
was basically all of the soldiers were farmers, so right away you can see there is a problem once
they find out their land was destroyed. The farmers are now becoming killed; the farms have been
abandoned for close to 7 years. SO senators go down south to buy for cheap the lands. They buy
Latifundia, giant plantations from land that was bought. Romans finally are able to grow things
like olives, and have made olive oil
who works the Latifundia
all the people from Carthage, become slaves and begin to work on the Latifundia
3. The huge influx in wealth from the Latifundia, and the wars. Money is adding, and the people who
are becoming wealthier are becoming more powerful
4. One of the things the Roman governments set up when they were dominating, they would take
territory and give it to the poorer sides, the Ager Publicus, is the public land, which is owned by
the government but then leases it out to poor people who cant own their own land. The aristocrats
then taker over the Ager Publicus and make it the Latifundia.
5. The vast increase in slave labour, we have huge numbers in slave, and slave revolts begin to take
place. From 137133 slave revolts take over all of Sicily
6. Fewer farmers mean fewer soldiers. If you have no property, you can’t join the army, all of these
poor people were ineligible to enter the army so there were fewer soldiers for wars. These poor
people agitated for more right and powers since they were being neglected.
Tarding about the wars Rome was fighting in the second century BC, 3 and 4 Macedonian war,
3 Carthaginian war, the creation of Africa as a new Roman province as well as Macedonia.
Hidden and secret problems that Rome faced as result of 2 Punic war, and their continuing
progress of conquest
Getting into the late republic, individual people are starting to make a big difference in what
happens in Rome or Italy
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (or just Tiberius Gracchus) – a tribune of the plebs, political
office designed to protect the Plebeians. They had instituted 10 of these protectors of the Plebs.
Plebs was trying to get the same rights and everything that the Patricians had (they eventually get
this). They were around since the battle of Regilius. As time goes on, everybody gets
recognized, but they still had all these tribunes of the Plebs (protecting Pleb names, anyone who is
poorer, etc) – this is a very important office to hold if they want to make a run for other offices. It
is easy for this person to get favor from lower classes.
o He is very keen to help people, but he wants to try to solve all the problems at once (but a
tribune is only there for one year). The problem would be solved if they just gave land to
the poor people (stolen from them by the aristocracy)
King Attalus – king of Pergamum – he dies and leaves his kingdom to the Roman people.
Gracchus thinks this means “the people” as in all people (poor included), but the aristocrats think
it means just them. There is a big clash between them, but Gracchus decides to go ahead and
distribute to everyone. But the consuls put together a group of men and attack Gracchus and 300
of his followers in a riot – yet the consuls are supposed to be the government. Not only is
Gracchus killed, but also he is dragged through the streets with hooks. The rest of Gracchus’
partisans were killed the next year. This was the first time in Roman history that a political conflict
had lead to bloodshed! (One part of government killing another part of government). This sets a
precedent that would eventually lead to the destruction of the republic.
129 – Asia is the next province (Asia minor)
Tiberius has a brother – (Gaius) Gracchus, he wants to take on what his brother was doing but is
tentative. He is elected tribune of the Plebs and then works slowly to solve some sideline problems rather than going right to the big things. He deals with road building, land reform, and decides
since there are so many poor people in Rome that the government should provide cheaper grain
for them – subsidized food. He also looks at tax reform and tries to spread Roman citizenship.
o But Romans started to get more proprietary about citizenship
o Lots of discontent in Italy with people who were half citizens but not moving up to full
One of the most important powers a tribune had was sacrosanctity – no one was allowed to touch
the tribune and the punishment was death for it – the problem was that Tiberius was assassinated,
so sacrosanctity clearly didn’t mean much anymore. So the new Gracchus tries to get more power
to carry out the real reforms, which was to help out the urban poor.
Consuls had Lictors, then there were fasces (weapon) which were used to threaten people
Gracchus is not reelected, and therefore not protected. So in 121, the next year when he is not a
tribune, the consuls get together and send people to kill Gaius Gracchus and his followers – he
gets his slave to kill him rather than be killed by the others. So he tried to institute land reform and
get things back to the people, but once again the consuls and the aristocracy prevent him (by
preventing reelection, and then by killing him)
Galianarbonensis – begins to be referred to as “the” province – “Provence”, happens in about 121
(not sure of official date)
Concordia a peace treaty that all members of the senate uphold, unwritten rules and everyone
agrees to work together for Rome’s benefit. Also, Concordia prevents the magistrates from using
all of their legal powers. Concordia eventually goes out the window though.
Roman armies are starting to be defeated – Macedonia, Africa, Gaul, etc. Roman army unable to
deal with problems while the senators aren’t doing anything or paying any attention to this.
The development of the Senate
Between 111 and 105 they are in a war with Africa
A local tribesman named Jugurtha was the side Rome was fighting, and they are various defeats
between the two sides, and no one is playing fair.
What happens, Rome calls in C.Marius, and he is elected consul for the first time in 107.
o He is successful in conquering the war in 105, and he is kept as commander in 106, and
o He is elected consul again 5 times in a row in 104100, this is all because of his victory
o He is also elected into consul in 86, so in total he was elected 7times.
This guy is seen as a savior to Rome, he is the guy who solves all the problems for Rome.
Between 104100, he is using the senate to bring in new reforms
o He reforms the military, and the legions.
He viewed that the problems in Newmilia was the armies’ fault. He decides to
take it apart and rebuild it. There is a new organization and new training, new
They bring in new equipment for the troops.
The Roman Army is now going to be paid to fight.
Anyone who is not a slave can serve in the army, and they are now going to be
paid, the army is also going to be provided to the soldiers
o His ideas are going to be a bit odd for the senate, and the people are beginning to dislike
o The problem of his new systems were discussed and he decide to show them what they
So, in the North of the Alps there are Germanic tribes, two of them being named the Cimbri, and
the Teutones. The Roman armies were defeated in 113,109, and 106, and in 105 at Arausio. This
left all of Northern Italy open for the taking, struck fear into Romans.
Marius sees he needs to do something to the North. o There are two fundamentally victories over the Cimbri and the Teutones
o In 102, at Aquae Sextiae, he defeated the Teutones
o While he was fighting the Teutones, the Cimbri cross the Alps and they collide with
Catullus and his army. To strike fear into the Romans, the Cimbri toboggan down the hill
to met the Romans.
o The Romans then meet them together in Vercellae, and the heat get to the Cimbri, and
the Romans easily defeat the Cimbri in 101.
o In 102, the Romans were victorious in Cilicia; they did this to stop the pirates.
o In 101, Cilicia becomes a Roman province.
This was all done in good work but was also used to show what his new ideological army was
The people looked down on Marius and he lost all of their support, but people had purged against
his side, and people had assassinated his supporters and he was forced to flee Rome.
In 96, the king of Syrinica dies, but gives it to the Empire of Rome.
All of the Roman allies were getting pissed at Rome, for the breaking of the categorizations of
citizenship. The Greeks especially were starting to rebel against the Romans. Socii is the Latin
word for Allies. The War of the Socii was the war of the Romans against all of their allies.
The threat to Rome is so serious, that they capitulate and Rome sides with their cause. It only
lasted from 9189 (Socii War), and Rome said that every free adult male south of the Poe River,
are now full citizens, everyone North gets Latin rights.
Some of the allies in the South continue to fight against some of their more aggressive allies and
they stop the fighting in 87.
The country of Pontus, its king Mithridates the 6 is worried that it is not going to be long till
Rome wants to take over. He makes a preemptive strike, and tries claiming himself as the savior of
The first action he takes was the strike on Pergamum (The Main Asian Roman City) in 89,
he basically gathers up all the Romans in the city, and kills every single one of them. He then
plans on marching east .
Last Left off:
Recap – were talking about Mithridates the king of Pontus – 89 BC he slaughters 80,000
Romans in Pergamum, presents himself as the liberator of the east. The next year in 88BC, there
was a decision to make for Romans for who was going to be the leader against Mithridates
Marius decides to come back after people have cooled down (he had fled)
Lucius Cornelius Sulla gets the command against Mithridates (granted command by the senate) –
but Marius had wanted it.
The Roman army goes off to fight, Marius is still in Rome and mad so he has an accomplice –
man named Cinna, and in 87BC they come and take over by killing all of Sulla’s followers.
Marius has himself proclaimed consul for 86BC and this is his last consulship
He dies of natural causes during his consulship
Meanwhile, Sulla is off fighting Mithridates and is successful – defeats Mithridates in 85BC
ending that war (went from 8885). Sulla takes his time getting back to Rome and takes his army
through Greece as a reward and after a year they meet back up – they rape, loot, and pillage. He
doesn’t get back until 83BC.
Cinna was still running things in Rome after Marius was dead, killing a quota of people per day.
When Sulla returns he is met by 3 people (his supporters who have managed to avoid being
Marcus Licinius Crassus – rich guy, used many ways to make money – owned the only fire
department in Rome. When there was a fire they would go ruin the houses close to the fire so that
it wouldn’t spread. When the fire is over the people had lost their houses, Crassus would buy back the land for super cheap.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius – (Matellus Pius), an up and coming general
Canius Pompeius (Pompey) – 18 years old and has his own army.
These three guys march on Rome and besiege Rome. For the first time there was a civil war –
Roman armies as well as mercenary armies (Pompeii’s) and they conquer Rome in 82BC.
Instead of killing his enemies, Sulla draws up a list for the wanted people; he doesn’t do the killing
but rather gets other people to do it for him for a reward.
Proscription (proscribe) – you proscribe people (put a poster up with their name on it and offer a
reward to whoever can prove the person is dead)
Sulla appoints himself dictator – it is an official Roman position, the person who tells everybody
what to do and it only lasts 6 months. The senate is the one who appoints the dictator and both
consund had to have died in battle – yet Sulla has himself appointed dictator (hadn’t had one since
the 2 Punic war)
As dictator, he puts through legislations to reform the political system, but he is only attacking the
symptoms but not really attacking the problems themselves so only looks like he’s doing
Does what he needs to do in 81BC as dictator, then has himself become a consul in 80BC.
Dictator has same job as consul but without a colleague – but consuls always come in 2 so he
basically demoted himself when his term was done so he could continue to do good
When his office is over in 80 he retires in 79BC, then in 78BC he dies as naturally causes – he did
good so no one really tried to kill him.
The problem was that the overall effect of his legislation gave more power to the senate. There
were supreme military and political powers falling into the hands of very few ambitious men who
used them to meet their ends of power, wealth and reputation. Entire military and political
system becomes a tool for powerful and ambitious men.
Meanwhile, in northern Italy, Cisalpine Gaul becomes a province. Although Mithridates and Sulla
made a treaty, Mithridates (from Asia minor) is still killing people and attack Romans, so
problems in the east. Then an exgovernor who actually helps the Lusitanian’s (from west, Spain)
revolt against Rome.
Within 3 years almost all of Spain is under control of Q. Sertorius.
There were good things too – 75BC Bithynia is made a province
Syrinica has become a province in 74BC
Also have the revolt of Spartacus happening between 73 and 71BC
Starts out as slave, gladiator, revolting getting slaves to follow him
Pompeius (Pompey) says he can go defeat Spain, and surprisingly he defeats Q. Sertorius in
71BC, and then also defeats Spartacus.
Because of both of these victories in 71, him and Crassus are elected consuls in the next year
Quintus Sertorius was defeated by CN. Pompeius (Pompey)
Pompeii does a good job running as consul, and he is elected as consul
He is chosen to fight the pirates.
Pompey wants unlimited power, for the amount of time he can do against the pirates.
Mithridates makes more notice about
In 67, Pompey is given command against the Pirates, with unlimited power
Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius conquers Crete and makes it a province
Shortly after Pompey defeats the pirates and Mithridates
By 64, Syria and Pontus are made provinces of Rome
Judea now become involved, and is in Rome’s interest, and is now a client kingdom, which means
it’s not a province, but the government of Judea has agreed to go along with Roman foreign policy
(to defend the interests in the area). This is considered Pompey’s Eastern settlement 6764
Essentially Pompey is successful in everything that he does, he does whatever he wants
The Senate is going along with it, as long as the senate sees a benefit from this.
Eventually he comes back in 62, and first thing he wants is to retire his veterans, but the senate
tells him they cant do that.
Pompey decides he going to get what he wants
He has this alliance Crassus who has friends like L. Cornelius Sulla, a powerful man, and
Pompey teams up with him and a new intelligent guy named C. Julius Caesar.
This group was called the Triumvirate (a team of guys)
The result of this, they get Caesar elected as Consul in 59.
Once he was elected, he acts as a mouthpiece for Pompey and Crassus
The important thing for Caesar was that once your consul you get to govern your own province.
That means you get to go away from Rome
So he decides to conquer a new land and make it a province.
He wanted to be governor of Cisapline Gaul, and Illyricum
In 58, after Caesar is Consul, he gets Cisapline Gaul, and Illyricum. He sets out to conquer
What’s happening in Rome?
o Other people are trying to get into the act, and factions are fighting each other (civil war).
In 55, Pompey and Crassus are Consuls again, and Pompey wants all the glory.
Crassus becomes Proconsuls and he gets a province so he can attack the Parthians.
o He heads of to the East in 54, and in 53 the army gets surrounded by the Parthians
o The funny thing is, is that camels were able to bring arrows from Carrhae, and keep on
storming the Romans, Crassus and the army give up, and Crassus gets his head cut
The only two left are Pompey and Caesar, and they are growing apart
First off, Caesar is able to conquer Gaul, and in 58 he decides to conquer Britain.
In 55 and 54 he goes of to Britain and conquers it, he doesn’t make it a province but tells the
people of Rome about it.
The only problem is he did not count the Gallic Chieftain Vercingetorix, and rallies the Gauls to
fight the Romans again.
This starts the siege of Alesia, the walls around the walls, and the besiegement in 52.
o But Caesar is able to be victorious
In 51, he is able to make Gaul a province, he still has some mopping up to do, but now that
this is done, everybody knows, that sooner or later Caesar will be coming back to Rome.
It is winter, January 49Bc When Caesar returns to Rome. On the 7 of January the Senate declares
Marshall law, they give Pompey the power to prevent Caesar’s return.
Pompey can now command an army in Italy. A very fast messenger reaches Caesar to warn him.
Now he must decide whether or not he shall abandon Rome or march on Rome with an army. If
he does march, he will be declared a public enemy and this will lead to a civil war.
“The die has been cast” he rolls a dice to decide whether or not he marches. There is a little river,
which is the boundary between Cisalpine Gaul, and Italy, when Caesar crosses that river he has to
all intents and purposes against Rome this river is called the Rubicon.
On the 11 of January 49BC he crosses it and heads south towards Rome. News gets to Rome
and the Senate declares him as a Public Enemy.
A civil war does begin. Caesar started moving more quickly than anyone expected and Pompey
fled out of Rome with his army. Caesar takes over in Rome and now he must hunt down Pompey. Pompey is set up in
Dyrrhachium just on the other side of the Adriatic.
He besieges Pompey there but Pompey escapes and a new army is assembled at Pharsalus in 48
BC. Massive battle in the plains outside that city and is defeated again by Caesar in 48 BC.
Pompey then heads off to his ally Ptolemy the 13th in Alexandria. Caesar follows him to
Alexandria and meets with Ptolemy and says to him I want you to hand over Pompey. Ptolemy
gives him a basket. He opens the basket and it is Pompey’s head, Caesar didn’t want to kill
Pompey, he wanted to bring him back to Rome and pardon him. It’s at this point that Caesar is