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Demonic perspectiveAssumptions of demonologyDeviancesinCause and cure of deviant behaviour in the realm of the supernaturalThe world is a battlefield between supernatural forces of good and evilDeviance has cosmic consequencesTwo paths to demonic deviancePossessionTemptationTests to diagnose the handiwork of the devilNatural means to achieve supernatural endsDuelsFive types of evidence to convictTrial by clever testIndividual testimonyPhysical marks of the devilSpectral evidenceConfession of guiltConfessional devicesThe inquisitional chairIron spiderCats pawJudas cradleHeretics forkRackHeadcrusher Witchcraft in contextRapid social changeMaintain status quoDivert attentionConvergence of civil and religious authorityScapegoatsRationale for punishmentRooted in ChristianityPenance through physical painRestore order of the worldEliminate evil spirits through deathDeterrenceAffirm authority of the ChurchSocial controlHow does crime reflect powerDefinitions of crime reflect relation of powerExplanations of crime reflect the relations of powerThe organization of punishment reflects relations of powerThus deviance and its control is ideological and political It reflects and reinforces relations of power and domination Burning TimesWhat groups were particularly vulnerable to the witch huntsWomen midwives Age of the monarchyLate middle agesKing Harold ruled EnglandPrinces held absolute power within their own bordersLiteracy and communication were poorLaw was localized1066Battle of HastingsWilliam of Normandy France became new rulerRise of the monarchSociety based on feudalismWilliam awarded main officers land and developed barons courtsChurch was centralized and uniting powerMonarch needed blessing of the ChurchAbsolute monarchy one king ruling over the entire kingdomKing is head of state and religionDivine right of kingsIn every kingdom the kings power comes directly from God to whom the ruler is accountable power does not come to the king from the people and he is not accountable to themTo defy the king is to defy GodTo violate the kings peace is punishable by deathEmergence of the kings courtStreamlined the procedures and made decisions fairerBarons local courts diminished in popularityCircuit judgeslaws based on local customs replacedJury system is introducedPetit assize grand assizeKings justiceRoyal casesCrimes against the kings peaceMassive criminalization of previouslyExpanding list of capital crimesForfeiture of propertyAdditional crimesUse of tortureSuspected of crimeOnly halfproof requiredInquisitionQuestions asked under oath and painTwo stages of tortureTypes of tortureFloggingAge of the monarchyimplications for justiceChanges in the administration of justiceExplanation of devianceDefinitions of devianceResponse to deviance
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