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CRM3305 Police and Social Control Midterm 1 Coursepack.rtf

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University of Ottawa

Police and Social Control Midterm 1Coursepack Readings Study NotesDavid Bayley and Clifford Shearing The New Structure of Policing Descriptions Conceptualization and Research AgendaPolicing is being reconstructed worldwide Its distinguishing features are a the separation of those who authorize policing from who do it and b the transference of both functions away from governmentThe change in policing cannot be understood in customary terms It is often mischaracterized for example as privatization Because the distinction between public and private domain becomes problematic in the new policing the more appropriate description for what is occurring is multilateralizationas host of non governmental groups have assumed responsibility for their own protection and a host of nongovernmental agencies have undertake to provide security servicesCrucial distinction is made between the auspices and providers of policing Auspices are groups and sometimes individuals that explicitly and selfconsciously take upon themselves the responsibility for organizing their own protection Providers are groups that actually do the policing In the old paradigm of policing government had responsibility for articulating security needs and for developing institutions to meet them This has changed auspices can either be public govt or private nongovtGovernments were the organizational auspices for formulating demand for policing and they were the providers who supplied it These two functions have become separateit has become acceptable for groups other that governments both to take control of their owm policing and to select the providers of itPolicing is authorized currently under five auspices economic interests both legal and illegal residential communities cultural communities individual and governmentPolicing is provided by commercial companies nongovernmental authorizers of policing individuals and governmentMany nongovernmental providers now perform the same task as the public policeThe new paradigm of policing represents more that decentralization within existing governmental institutions Governments are not just devolving power on subordinate levels of governmentthey are accepting new bases of legitimate government Public policing police officers employed by the government completing everyday tasks of an officerPrivate policing created through organizations and corporations to ensure the safety of their buildings employees and moreMany companies and individuals are no longer relying on the government they are now seeking protection and security from private policing However this has caused issues as the line between private and public policing has become blurred There is no longer a monopoly to policing government is now encouraging other organizations and companies to seek private policing Although public and private perform same tasks they employ distinctive practices Specifically governmental providers then to prevent crime through punishing nongovernmental providers do so through exclusion and the regulation access they attempt to regulate behavior and circumstances to diminish the possibility that crime will occurIn the response to the restructuring of policing the role of the public police may be changing significantly In particular its agenda is become increasingly that of government rather than individuals it is specializing in criminal investigations and undercover surveillance its operations are undertaken in groups and it is increasingly militarized in equipment and outlookThe explanations for the current reconstructuring of police involve shortcomings of the public police increases in crime the nature of economic systems the character government and the social structure ideas cultureThe failure of government to provide adequate police protection is the reason most commonly citedFaith in the public criminal justice system has declined because it is perceived to be unable to punish criminals successfully because of growing number of procedural rulesGovernments have become much more cost conscious due to declining revenue and therefore more willing that in the past to share responsibility for crime control and other functions with auspicesthThe development of the professional police model in the 20 century narrowed the focus of public policing disconnected it from communities and weakened its ability to reduce risk and prevent crimeThe public police are increasingly perceived to be corrupt brutal and unreliable especially in less developed countries People would rather take security into their own hands that trust discredited policeMore people are mobilized to protect themselves due to the moral panic about crime this may be part of thee constellation of forces that are leading to the very police reconstucturing that is helping to bring aboutEconomics policing has become increasingly commodified a service to be bought and sold due to the expansion of freeenterprise economic systems Mass private property has expanded in the past half century requires a different sort of policing such as malls factories cinemas and more Private policing grows as the proportion of private landholdings accessible to the public growsEconomic developments increases criminal opportunities with respect to property crime such as theft and burglary because personal property becomes more valuableAs societies become more complex so too do the security needs of their people If governments are unable to meet public expectations people will look for other auspices to take responsibilityCurt Griffiths Legal Powers of the Police in Canadian Police WorkThe charter has entrenched the constitutional rights of those accused of crimes who have the right to challenge the actions for the police if those rights have been violate Charter rights combine with preexisting legal rules provide legal safeguards against the unlimited use of police powerPolice powers were greatly expanded when the Anti terrorism ac was passed in December 2001The authority of the police to arrest is provided in the criminal code and other federal statutes as well as by provincial laws such as moto vehicle statutes Police an make an arrest to prevent a crime from being committed to terminate a breach of peace or to compel an accused person to attend trialTo complete an arrest or receive a search warrant police officers must require a sign off by the justice of peaceSometimes the police must act quickly and have no time to secure a warrant from a JP Police officers can arrest suspects without an arrest warrant in some circumstancesTwo further conditions apply when making an arrest First the officer myust not make an arrest if he or she has no reasonable grounds to believe that the person will fail to appear in court Second the officer must believe on reasonable grounds that an arrest is necessary in the public interestTo make a lawful arrest a police officer should identify himself or herself teel the suspect that he or she is being arrested inform the suspect of the reason for the arrest or show the suspect the warrant if there is one and where feasible touch the suspect on the shoulder as a physical indication of the confinement In practice arrest are usually made only for indictable offence For minor crimes called summary convictions offences arrest is only legal if the police find someone actually committing the offence or if there is an outstanding arrest warrant
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