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CRM 1301 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Church Attendance, Moral Panic, Seesaw


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRM 1301
Professor
Carolyn Gordon
Study Guide
Midterm

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uOttawa
CRM1301
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Julia Quast
CRM 1301 C
January 18th, 2017
Continued Note for “Intro to Theory”
Kitty Genovese 1935 to 1964
- 37 people witnessed/heard her struggling, but did nothing
- she was not saved because of a term known as “diffusion of responsibility”
Diffusion of Responsibility: the circumstance known for the more help someone needs or
appears to be in need of, there is less help provided because witnesses/bystanders assume that
others will help, therefore they do not need to lend assistance.
Confederate: someone who needs assistance
Deductive:
- Explanation (theory)
- Test
- Verify/Refute
Inductive:
- Observe
- Analyze
- Explanation (theory)
Ex: Howard Becker spent time with jazz musicians when they were NOT playing music. He
observed that they enjoyed smoking marijuana. From his observations came his theory:
- People must learn HOW to become a marijuana user (how to smoke a joint, bong, how to
inhale, and hold smoke in lungs, etc.)
1. Observe: technique (how to smoke a joint)
2. Analyze: recognize your symptoms (dry mouth, snack craving, tired, etc.)
3. Theory: associate symptoms with pleasure (some find smoking marijuana with
friends is a fun thing to do; some people associate smoking marijuana with scary
hallucinations, or do not enjoy the common symptoms)
The Experiment: Independent v. Dependant (X and Y)
- Independent: manipulated
- Dependant: dependant on independent (measure)
Ex: Do violent TV shows increase aggression in young children? There must be an establishment
on what violence IS (physical, name calling, etc.)
- Care Bears v. Ninja Turtles
- Have 6 kids watch one, and 6 watch the other
- Observe their behaviour on the playground AFTER watching the TV show
*Environment is a factor at role in generating the social/personal aspects of behaviours
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The Correlation:
- Systematically measuring 2 or more variables and assessing the relationship between
them
- How much one variable can be predicted by the other
Ex: Income v. Education
- If there is more education, there is more income or vice versa
Positive: variables move in the same direction BUT they can either move UP or DOWN
Negative: variables move in opposite directions
*Both correlations can have a positive or negative effect
Spurious Correlation: apparent but false relationship between 2 or more variables that is caused
by other variables
Ex: having animals in a home = less delinquency in children
Quantitative Validation: measuring and assessing
- Testability: is it testable/measurable to produce evidence (visiting old methods sometimes
helps)
Qualitative Validation: focusing on the substance
Logical Soundness: does not produce illogical relationships
- Tautological reasoning = circular reasoning, ex: deviance is functional because it is
universal, and because deviance is universal it exists everywhere
Validity: ex: how religious people are in society
- Common way to find validity: observe church attendance, ask the people attending
questions, do a random group study seeing how many say they are religious and how
many say they are not
- The CIRCUMSTANCES must be examined: who attends? Why they attend? Who wants
to be there but cannot be there? Who is forced to be there? The quality of the observation
is very important!
Time Order Problem: asking someone who smokes marijuana often if they think they are likely
to be arrested and they will likely say “no” because they have not been caught YET
- They may have smoked several times without being arrested
- Because they have not been arrested yet, they believe they will not be arrested in the
future
*When something appears to happen 1st, but actually happened 2nd
Sensitizing Ability: Carl Mark’s says that the ‘rich’ are the true criminals (different perspective)
- Focus attention on new direction of inquiry aids with making sense of things (sheds new
light)
- Conflicting facts or information offer a different theory
Knowledge is Context Bound: we must look at all the circumstances and variables (social,
political, etc.)
- Political: church, government
- Socio-Economic: rich, poor
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