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Lecture 1 (Jan 18th).docx

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Kevin Gildea

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ENG1100 Kevin Gildea Workshop in Essay Writing th Lecture 1 (Jan 18 ) 5 comma rules:  , but/yet (in the middle of a sentence) o Exception: Everyone except john went to the store  When writing a series: o I like apples, oranges, peaches and cream o Being technical: it is important to include the comma before the final and  Introductory words/phrases, o Firstly, secondly, therefore, however, due to the fact, furthermore must be followed by a comma  X, introductory words/phrases, y. o Where X + y = a proper sentence o An independent clauses simply means that the sentence stands alone o Clause: A group of words  Although x, y o Because x, y Never start a sentence with “Although, clause”  Although is a great word for transition Lecture 2 (Jan 25 ): Turning a topic into a thesis  Key to really effective writing, is to make your subjective point of view sound Objective – make it sound like it’s not your opinion  Why should it be the last sentence?: Because don’t you want that to be the last thing your reader reads before they dive into your essay?  Topic: Simple to generate and get out o Racism in Canada o Start asking question – which leads to your thesis statement (Why, how, what about it)  A good thesis is: o Argumentative: It makes a case, that’s the biggest difference between a thesis and a topic o Controversial: Something that an intelligent person should be able to disagree with your thesis. If everyone agrees with it, it is too obvious o Analytical, Not evaluative: A paper is not the place to praise or blame anything, analyzing and making arguments. o Specific: Not good enough to deal in vague generalities o Well supported*: That’s the key to the rest of the paper after those first few paragraphs  3 bare minimum components: o General opening statement: Doesn’t really say anything, but sort of sets the parameters of what will be discussed o Sections: o Thesis:  All intros should be AT LEAST 3 sentences long Example Essay:  Three examples of German Cars manufactured outside of Germany are BMW, Audi, And Mercedes Benz (Cannot work as a thesis, but can be the sections) o Not a good idea to use your subject as your sections headings o If done this way, repetition will occur o Avoid repetition by:  Changing the sections to Style, Performance, and Cost  Examples can be developed at greater length and is sometimes called – an illustration  Examples or illustrations are essential in effective writing because they enable the reader to visualize the concept you are explaining Why? The purpose:  Example papers simply answer the question – What are some significant examples of this?  Examples should come from – Quotations, statistics, or facts How? The Technique  Three Canadian doctors who have made significant contributions to human welfare and Blank, Blank and Blank Because of A, B, and C  Bring in the three doctors whenever needed o Avoiding repetition To Remember:  Make sure every example is related to my topic (If it doesn’t fit, leave it out)  Make sure examples are pertinent – relevant  Make sure that the range and number of your examples is limited o No set number of examples o Depends on the assigned length Outline template:  An intro that includes o A General Opening Statement o Sections: some examples of S, are A, B, and C o And a thesis  Then section A  Followed by Section B  And then section C (or more)  Followed by a proper Conclusion o Reminding and summarizing o Not to be included: Questions – or in the entire essay. Why? Because you’re making a point! Good thesis: Three music groups that have revolutionized the music industry are A, B, and C because of their… The word “because of” suggest an argument What will be expected?:  A formal introduction  With a thesis at the end  Where sections are defined  A title the reflects the thesis o One of the most important starting points for the entire essay  A proper conclusion Questions:  Can I use personal observation?  Do I need to do research  See your course outline, for length and other specifics Lecture 3 (Feb 1rst) 15 steps to organization: 1. Selecting a topic: your topid will either be provided for you, or you will be tasked to develop one of your own, This will vary according to the wishes of your instructor 2. After you have your topic:, ask some questions about it. You want to start thinking about what angle you will take regarding the selected topic (ie: this is the beginning of your thesis) 3. Gather information: This will take the form of either brainstorming or research (or both) 4. At this point, write down/note any ideas, concepts, quotes, etc. you feel might relate to your topic and think about a general thesis 5. Eliminate any material that doesn’t seem to fit with the rest of your information 6. Group your ideas in relation to commonalities (umbrella terms). They key to this step is that you can actually impose commonalities on various ideas/concepts. Beginning of your sections 7. Position ideas within each group/section 8. Eliminate any ideas within each group (section) that don’t seem to fit smoothly 9. Position your groups into a logical order. This is a crucial step as you will have to impose a “logical” of presenting material in the overall body of the assignment 10. Begin connecting ideas within each group. At this point, you should also sharpen your thesis and begin to link quotes/examples into your own thoughts. 11. For each group, create a controlling ideas (theme) or topic sentence and a transitional sentence 12. Sharpen your thesis a final time and write your first draft with a full introduction (remember: you should never create an introduction at the outset; it should create itself based on all the work you have already completed) 13. Write a second draft with revisions. Write your conclusion at this point. 14. If time permits, leave the paper alone for a day or so. You need to detach yourself from the material as you are too close to it at this stage. After a while, go back to your paper and check for continuity, logc, etc… 15. Write your third and final draft. a. Chapters and much like sections with sub groups The Comparison and Contrast Paper  Pointing out similarities is called comparing  While pointing out differences is called contrasting  Comparison is one of the worst forms you can use in writing We use comparison to answer three questions 1. What are the main similarities between S1 and S2 2. What are the main differences between S1 and S2 3. What are the main similarities and differences between S1 and S2 The technique: 1. Are the two items really comparable? 2. What are the “terms” of comparison (umbrella terms) 3. What is the most appropriate pattern of organization to use Might have to manipulate your wording in order to compare to seemingly un-comparable things 2 ways of setting up a Compare and Contrast essay:  Chunk pattern: o Paragraph 1: intro and thesis o Paragraph 2: Novel  Character  Setting  Plot o Paragraph 2: Film  Character  Setting  Plot o Conclusion summarize similarities and differences o Only use this for very short answers!!  Slice method: o Paragraph 1: Intro and thesis o Paragraph 2: Characters  S1: in Novel  S2: In film o Paragraph 3: Setting  S1: In novel  S2: In film o Paragraph 4: Plot  S1: In novel  S2: In film o Paragraph 5: Conclusion Lecture 4 (Feb 8 )  In this portion of the course we are interested in identifying reasons for, or consequences of  Cause and effect (Causal analysis) is a rhetorical pattern based on these aspect: o The writer attempts to analyze the reasons that lead to something, such as an event or decision o Analyze the possible consequences o Or sometimes both (But avoid that for the purposes of this course)  Both events and decision occur in time  2 examples o A medical breakthrough  Vaccines  Better to do consequences, or the reasons leading up to it o An invention of any kind o The lockout  What were the reasons  The Purpose of cause and Effect o The causal analysis answers 2 questions  What are the causes of S  What are the effects of S  To write an effective causal analysis you must: o Be honest and objective in your investigation (what does the research/background information say?) o Analyze complex ideas carefully in order to distinguish between the remote and the immediate o Do not be swayed by your official biases and prejudices  For example: “the reason for a given workers’ strike is greed and laziness”, without exploring the demands and conditions of the actual event o Do not oversimplify (eg: “the reason for all the violence in society is cause by the violence on television) o Be aware that an event can be triggered by a complex variety of things o Never mistake coincidence for causation  The technique of Cause and Effect: o Limit your topic to one you can explore adequately in the space allotted o One thesis template: The causes for S are A, B, and C o For ex: The principle causes for failure at university are lack of basic skills, lack of study skills, and lack of motivation o Or: o A second thesis template: The effects of S were A, B, and C o Ex: The effects of a city losing their pro sparts team were a decline in small business sales, a loss of financial investment into the community and the demise of sport culture in the city o M
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