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Final

ENG1100 Final: Readings - GrammarPremium

24 pages91 viewsFall 2016

Department
English
Course Code
ENG 1100
Professor
Geraldine Arbach
Study Guide
Final

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December 8, 2016
Grammar Readings
Table of Contents
Grammar
2
Common Sentence Errors
6
Wordiness
7
Subject-Verb Agreement
8
Problems with Pronouns
9
Problems with Modifiers
9
The Comma
10
The Semicolon
13
The Colon
13
The Apostrophe
14
Quotation Marks
15
Other Punctuation Marks
17
*Glossary of Usage
18
Mechanics and Spelling
21
1

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December 8, 2016
Grammar (Checkmate 305-331)
Parts of speech
-Nouns: people, places, things, or concepts (can be identified by placing an article in front of the word)
Proper nouns: specific, people, places, and things (always with an initial capital)
Common: general people, places, or things
Concrete: things you experience through your sentences (ex. gravel, ice cream, storm)
Abstract: things you do not experience through your senses (ex. knowledge, liberation, feat)
Collective: groups (ex. jury)
Non-count: things that can’t be counted (ex. snow, porridge, hockey)
Count: things that can be counted (ex. books)
Possessive: things that are owned by someone (ex. Daddy’s…)
-Articles: words that accompany and quantify nouns (related to adjectives)
Indefinite: a, an
Definite: the
-Pronouns: used in the place of nouns
Antecedent: the word replaced by a pronoun
Personal pronouns: refer to people, places, or things
-Subjective: refer to people or things who are performing actions or are the subject being describe (ex. I, you,
he, she, it, we, they)
-Objective: refer to people or things that are acted on - often follow a preposition (ex. me, you, him, her, it, us,
them)
Possessive: indication ownership (ex. my, your, his, her, its, our, their)
-Absolute possessive: stand in for both the owner and the thing (ex. mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs)
Unlike possessive, don’t need to be followed by the possession
Relative: introduce subordinate clauses that operate as adjectives (ex. who, which, that)
Demonstrative: point to nouns (ex. this, these, that, those)
Interrogative: begin questions (ex. who, whose, what, which)
Reflexive: name the receiver of an action who is identical to the performer of an action (ex. myself, yourself,
himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves)
-Ex. Cats keep themselves very clean
Intensive: look like reflexive but are used to emphasize a noun or pronouns (ex. you yourself scorn a daily bath)
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Reciprocal: refer to the separate parts of a plural antecedent (ex. each other, one another)
-Ex. The kittens licked one another
Indefinite: refer to general people are things (ex. all, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody,
everyone, everything, neither, no one, nobody, none, nothing, one, some, somebody, someone, something)
-Verbs: expresses an action, an occurrence (became), or a stat of being (is, seemed)
May be one verb or a phrase made up of a main verb and an auxiliary verb (ex. was smoking)
Verb forms: vary according to tense, person, number, mood, voice
-Main: describes a simple action or state of boing
-Auxiliary: helping verbs (ex. be, do, have)
-Modal verbs: used with the present tense form to express doubt or certainty, necessity or obligation,
probability or possibility (ex. can, could, may, might, should, would, must, out to, do, have, be)
Can be regular or irregular
Types of verbs:
-Transitive verbs: always take an object (ex. hates…)
-Intransitive: do not take an object (ex. giggled)
-Linking verbs: join the subject to the complement (ex. forms of to be, to feel, to seem)
-Action verbs
Verb tense: refer to when an action occurs either past, present, or future
-Simple tenses (past, present, future): one-time or regular occurrence (ex. I laughed, I laugh)
Progressive form: ongoing events (ex. I am laughing)
-Perfect tenses (past perfect, past present, etc.): completed actions (ex. I had laughed, I have laughed, I will
have laughed)
Progressive form (ex. I have been laughing)
Mood:
-Indicative: used for events that are real or that commonly occur (ex. he laughs)
-Imperative: used for commands (ex. don’t laugh at me)
-Subjunctive: used to express hypothetical situations, things contrary to fact, wishes, requirements, and
speculations (ex. If I were you…)
Voice: refers to whether the subject performs the action or receives the action
-Active: subject performs the action (ex. customers found the wait staff)
-Passive: subject receives the action (ex. the wait staff was found by the customers)
-Adjectives: modify nouns or pronouns (which one, what kind, how many)
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