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Human Geography Exam notes

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Nature and PerspectivesAGeography as a field of inquiry Evolution of key geographical concepts and models associated with notable geographers BKey concepts underlying the geographical perspective location space place scale pattern regionalization and globalization CKey geographical skills 1 How to use and think about maps and spatial data 2 How to understand and interpret the implications of associations among phenomena in places 3 How to recognize and interpret at different scales the relationships among patterns and processes 4 How to define regions and evaluate the regionalization process 5 How to characterize and analyze changing interconnections among places DNew geographic technologies such as GIS and GPS ESources of geographical ideas and data the field census dataW D Pattisons Four Traditions In 1964 WD Pattison a professor at the University of Chicago wanted to counter the idea that geography was an undisciplined science by saying that geographers had exhibited broad enough consistency such that there were four distinctive but affiliated traditions1An earthscience traditionphysical natural geography Intellectual legacy Aristotle 384322 BC Greek philosopher who looked at natural processes Earth is spherical matter falls together toward a common centerModern geographer Immanuel Kant 17241804 German 1 All knowledge can be classified logically or physically2 Descriptions according to time comprise history descriptions according to place compromise geography 3 History studies phenomena that follow one another chronologically whereas geography studies phenomena that are located beside one another 2 A manland traditionrelationships between human societies and natural environments Intellectual legacy Hippocratic a Greek Physician of 5th century BC who wrote that places affect the health and character of man Modern geographersAlexander von Humboldt 17691859 and Carl Ritter 17791859 German 1 Move beyond describing earths surface to explaining why certain phenomena are present or absent2 Origin of where and why approach3 Environmental determinismhow the physical environment causes social development 3A spatial traditionspatial unifying theme similar patterns between physicalhuman geography Intellectual legacy Claudius Ptolemy AD 100170 a Greek who wrote 8volume Geographia in the second century AD containing numerous maps also father of geometryModern geographerAlfred Wegener climatologist 1 Studied spatial arrangement of landmasses used geographical and geological evidence 2 Continental driftlandmasses were once part of supercontinent plate tectonics4An areastudies traditionregional geography Intellectual legacy Strabo 63 BCAD 24 Roman investigator who wrote a report called Geography a massive production for the statesmen intended to sum up and regularize knowledge of location and place their character and their differentiation Modern geographer Carl Sauer 18891975 American1The work of human geography is to discern the relationships among social and physical phenomena2Everything in the landscape is interrelated5 Themes of GeographyLocation HumanEnvironmental Interactions Regions Place MovementA study of Geography begins with knowing where things are located on a mapBut more important it requires an understanding of why things are located in particular places and how those places influence our livesBy using these 5 themes as a basis for understanding geographic information we can gain a better appreciation of cultural and environmental changes around the worldThe first three themes correspond to Pattisons four traditionsLocation humanenvironmental interactions and regions continue to anchor the study of geographyTwo other themes place and movement were added in 1986 by the National Geographic society developed by the Geography Education National implementation Project GENIPAll places on earth have distinguishing human and physical characteristics Movement refers to the mobility of people goods and ideasLocation position on Earths surface Distributionvarious locations of a collection of people or objectsWays to indicate location position 1 Maps best way to show location and demonstrate insights gained through spatial analysis2 Placename a name given to a portion of the Earths surface Miami3 Site physical characteristics of a place climate water sources topography soil vegetation latitude and elevation4 Absolute location latitude and longitude parallels and meridians mathematical measurements mainly useful in determining exact distances and direction maps5 Relative location location of a place relative to other places situation valuable way to indicate location for two reasonsa Finding an unfamiliar placeby comparing its location with a familiar one Miami35 miles northwest of Cincinnatib Centrality understanding its importance Chicagohub of seaair transportation close to four other statesSingaporeaccessible to other countries in Southeast Asia6 Distribution arrangement of something across Earths surface a Densityfrequency with which something occurs in an areaArithmetic densitytotal number of objects people in an areaPhysiologic densitynumber of people per unit area of agriculturally productive landb Concentrationextent of a features spread over an areaClusteredrelatively closeDispersedrelatively far apartc Patterngeometric arrangement of objects HumanEnvironmental Interactions Cultural ecologyrelations between cultures and environment 1Cultural landscapeincludes all humaninduced changes that involve the surface and the biosphereCarl Sauerthe forms superimposed on the physical landscape by the activities of man2 Environmental Determinismhuman behavior individually and collectively is strongly affected by and even controlled or determined by the environment3 Possibilismthe natural environment merely serves to limit the range of choices available to a culture4 Environmental Modificationpositive and negative environmental alterationsRegions areas of unique characteristics ways of organizing people geographically 1 Distinctive characteristics a area defined spatial extent blocation lie somewhere on Earths surfacec boundaries sometimes evident on the ground often based on specifically chosen criteriadother cultural language religion economic agriculture industry physical climate vegetation2 Three types of regionsa Formalaka uniform homogeneous visible and measurable homogeneity link to scale and detailb Functionalproduct of interactions and movement of various kinds usually characterized by a core and hinterland eg a city and its surrounding suburbsc Perceptualaka vernacular primarily in the minds of people eg Sunbelt3 Regions can be seen in a hierarchy vertical order scale eg Ft LauderdaleBroward CountyFloridaSoutheastern US Place associations among phenomena in an area 1 Culturepeoples lifestyles values beliefs and traitsa What people care about language religion ethnicityb What people take care of 1 daily necessities of survival food clothing shelter and 2 leisure activities artistic expressions recreationc Cultural institutions political institutions a country its laws and rights2Components of culture a Culture regionthe area within which a particular culture system prevails dress building styles farms and fields material manifestationsb Culture traita single attribute of culturec Culture complexa discrete combination of traitsdCulture systemgrouping of certain complexes may be based on ethnicity language religione Culture realman assemblage of culture or geographic regions the most highly generalized regionalization of culture and geography eg subSaharan Africa3 Physical Processesenvironmental processes which explain the distribution of human activitiesa Climatelongterm average weather condition at a particular locationVladimir Koppens five main climate regions expresses humans limited tolerance for extreme temperature and precipitation levelsb Vegetationplant life c Soilthe material that forms Earths surface in the thin interface between the air and the rocksErosion and the depletion of nutrients are two basic problems concerning the destruction of the soildLandformsEarths surface features geomorphology limited population near poles and at high altitudes Movement interconnections between areas 1 Culture Hearthssources of civilization from which an idea innovation or ideologyoriginates eg Mesopotamia Nile Valley viewed in the context of time as well as space 2 Cultural diffusionspread of an innovation or ideology from its source area to another culture a Expansion diffusionan innovation or ideology develops in a source area and remains strong there while also spreading outward 1 Contagious diffusionnearly all adjacent individuals are affected eg spread of Islam disease
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