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History of Tech Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Ottawa

Chapter 1Defining TechnologyTechnologyoTechneartoLogosword discourse theorythUntil 16 century technology still meant speaking about a subjectTechnology became theory of the productive artsAncient Greecepractical and useful artsmechanicalMechanicala solution to a problemMechanical artscombination of manual skill or dexterityoA form of intelligence known as craftinessMechanical arts suffered from association with slaves and tradesmenAristotleoffered more positive evaluation of productive artsThrough antiquity divide endured between banausic arts and activities thought to be more praiseworthyCicerooLiberal tradespracticed by free men ex Medicine architecture agricultureoSordid tradesusury tax collecting retailing manual labor and mechanical artsVulgar banausic or productive arts comprise what were usually called in English the arts and craftsNo general conception of what might be common characteristicunifying trait of disparate activitiesOnce technology shifted from art of speaking to theory of art changed to mean productive arts in generalAs new arts and crafts multiplied need to master them led to push for technical educationLed to development of patent systems in England and FranceFrance and German statesSchools founded to train engineers technicians and technicallyskilled managersoPart of doctrine called cameralism in German statesoCameral schools taught civil servants the basics of financial management and touched on crafts and associated guilds factories and economic growthFrancis BaconoFirst stated ideal of applying science to daily lifethoDrove the initiatives ex schools during the 17 century Scientific RevolutionEnthusiasm for Bacons method led to philosophers studying the artsNew technology encompassed writings on technics technical treatises and discussions of practical arts1861Founding of Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIToReflected the beginning of a shiftBefore Faculty of Engineering at UofT there was the School of Practical ScienceoPractical Sciencereflected need for a term that would be more general than engineeringMedieval Europe oFew scholars seemed to think their contemporaries might have come up with improvements on technologies of Antiquityth15 CenturyoGiovanni Tortelliadding new inventions to the ancient listsoStill mostly attempted to pin down person responsible for new piece of technology and the moment of its inventionModern patent systemoEvolved out of concern for priority of invention and the associated recognition of inventorsoNew inventions affected lives of more and more peopleoNew inventions required more and more people to make them workBecame clear that history of technology that only focused on the original inventor was incomplete
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