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University of Ottawa
Ren Zhijun

Lecture 1Yi dynasty 13921910Ming Empire 13681644Qing Empire 16441912Tokugawa Shogunate 16001868Meiji period 18681912Taisho period 19121926Imjin WarThe first invasion 15921593 is literally called the Japanese Disturbance of Imjin In Chinese Wanli Korean Campaign Renchen War to Defend the Nation where renchen is the Chinese reading of imjin The second invasion 15971598 is called the Second War of DingyouYuan Chaoxian The Rescue of Korea or Dong ZhengEastern Expedition In Japanese the war is called Bunroku no eki Battle of the Bunroku period The second invasion 15971598 is called Keich no eki Battle of Keicho Bunroku and Keicho referring to the Japanese reign title of the Japanese emperor Hideyoshi no Chosen Shinryaku Hideyoshis Invasion of KoreaThree unifiers of JapanOda Nobunga 15341582started the unification process assassinated in a coup detat Toyotomi Hideyoshi 15361598took the title of kampaku imperial regent and later taiko retired imperial regent by 1590 Hideyoshi unified JapanTokugawa Ieyasu 15421616founder of the Tokugawa ShogunateWanli EmperorWanli was his reign title his personal name was Zhu YijunThirteenth emperor of the Ming EmpireRuled from 1572 to 1620His rule led the Ming Empire to military weakness and steady decline in its socioeconomic realmsTimeline of the war1592May Japanese landing at PusanJune King Sonjo of Korea flee SeoulAugust Ming expeditionary force annihilated in PyongyangSeptember rise of Righteous Guerrillas in Korean countrysideTimeline of the war1593January Ming relief forces arrive in KoreaFebruary Allied force recapture Pyongyang and Kaesong March Japanese retreat to SeoulJune July Japanese sue for peace Chinese envoy sent to JapanAutumn most Japanese and Chinese troops withdrawNovember King Sonjo return to SeoulTimeline of the war159697October Chinese envoys meet Hideyoshi who rejects their terms Hideyoshi orders second invasion of Korea 1597February Japanese ships land at TongnaeSummer Yi Sunsin back in action at seaOctober Allied victory at Chiksan Yi Sunsin wins naval battle at MyongyangTimeline of the war1598JanFeb Siege of Ulsan by allied forcesApril Japanese forces began to withdrawSeptember Hideyoshi dies Japanese forces withdrawDecember battle of Noryang Straits the end of war Yi Sunsin dies in the battleSignificance of the Imjin WarFirst transEast Asian warOne of the early modern warfare European technologies and weaponries were widely usedDisclosed the weakness of the Ming Empire led to its collapse in 1644 Reinforce the tributary relation in East AsiaIn the Meiji period the Japanese expansionist strategy basically repeated Hideyoshis plan The first step was the annex of Korea in 1910 the longanticipated fulfillment of Hideyoshis unfulfilled glorious enterpriseTerauchi Masatake and then the invasion of Manchuria and Mainland China in the 1930s The historical Imjin war was not only the genesis of the modern notion of East Asia but was also the first sign of subsequent trajectory and pattern of 19th and 20th century East Asian historyLecture 2The tributary systemThe origin of the tributary system can be traced back to the Han dynasty 206 BC220 AD and Tang dynasty 618907 during which period the Chinese empire developed loose rein policies in dealing with the Western territory namely Central Asia The tributary system developed into its mature form during the Ming dynasty 13681644 and culminated in the Qing dynasty 16441911 Beginning with Chinas defeat in the SinoBritish Opium War 18391842 the ruling Qing dynasty faced an unprecedented crisis posed by the European powers The Sinocentric world order which dominated East Asia for millennia was fiercely challenged both externally and internally and started to crumble The most apparent sign of the failure of the Sinocentric world order was the collapse of the tributary system China first lost its tributary state of Vietnam to France in the SinoFrench War 18841885 and then lost Korea to Japan in the first SinoJapanese War 18941895 The Sinocentric world order was in crisis and eventually faded away 3 dimensions of the tributary systemcultural and ritual dimensionsAn imperial appointment was bestowed upon the tributary prince in the forms of a document recognizing the rulers status as a tributaryA noble rank was also conferred upon the tributary princeAn imperial seal was granted to be used in the signing of the tributary princes tributary memorialsThe Chinese calendar was extended over the tributary states diplomatic dimensions the tributary system was hierarchical in nature and negated the notion of formal equality According to the Chinese ideal China as the Middle Kingdom was always at the center of the Eastern Asian worldthe surrounding tributary states were regarded as mere peripheries and extensions of the Middle Kingdom Each was equal to every other state but all were inferior to Chinatrade dimensions tribute trades were conducted on two occasions One was in the Chinese capital of Beijing immediately after the submission of tributes to the Chinese emperor Tribute missions were allowed to trade with the Chinese under state supervision Another occasion was along the frontiers between China and the tributary states This included trading at the Chinese ports the tributetrade system organized East and Southeast Asia into a multicentered commercial web with silver as its common currency Benefits of the tributary systemallowed the exchange of envoys essential to the conduct of diplomatic relationsserved to facilitate and regulate tradea foreign king anticipated Chinese protection against his foreign enemiesnoninterference in the tribute states internal affairsthe tributary system combined diplomacy and trade while never overtly acknowledging that it was fulfilling either of these functions This was because within the terms of Chinese culture there could be no true diplomacy based as it must be on natural equality between sovereign states and because commerce was not as highly valued as farming the tributary system enabled the Chinese empire to deal with diplomatic and commercial matters without dealing with them overtly and directly Culture diplomacy and trade were three facets of the tributary system which cannot be analyzed separately from each otherwithout the cultural dimension the diplomacy and trade could not be justified and sustained without taking the substantial economic benefits generated from trade into consideration abstract ideological concepts such as Confucian virtues and supremacy of Chinese emperor as the Son of Heaven are not sufficient to explain how the tributary system was able to persist for centuries Tributary system and the emergence of East AsiaAsian modernization including early industrialization commercialization and the emergence of nationalism originated from the indigenous tributary system tributary countries began to take on national identities visvis China based on their own understandings of Sinocentrism and the tributary order Lecture 3The collapse of the Ming EmpireThe Ming central court lost control of its rural bureaucracy and its tax structureeunuch domination over court politics widespread corruptions intellectual irresponsibility high taxes famine peasant rebellions The ManchusThe frontier nomadic tribe in Northeast China
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