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HSS 1100 - Final Exam Study Notes.docx

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Health Sciences
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1Respiratory Viruses1Influenza Viruses1Two typesaAcauses major epidemicsbBcauses mild diseases2Produce hemagglutinin and grow well in cell culture3Their nucleic acids are separate but connected together resulting in frequent recombinationthe resulting antigenic variability explains periodic appearance of new types of virus that cause pandemics of influenza4ClinicalaAcute febrile illness with variable respiratory symptomsbInfants and elderly are particularly sensitive to both diseases and complications5DiagnosisaThroat washing or nasopharyngeal aspirate taken within 3 days after onsetbIf delay use transport mediumcIf patients cant gargle use throat and nasal swabs6SerumaPaired sera taken within 23 weeks acute and convalescent phase to investigate the increase in titer of antibodiesbAcute sample must be collected as soon as after onsetcIf detection of specific IgG antibody or total antibodies is the only possible test paired sera is requireddPaired sera taken within 23 weeks apart are tested at the same timeeRise of titer of antibody indicates current infectionfSimultaneously significant risedecreaseseroconversion of titer suggests that the patients are considered to have current infectiongWhen testing for single IgM antibody single serum sample is required7PreventionaVaccines combined against both types are available and hampered by continous antigenic variationsbAntibodies against single strain of virus protect only partially or not at all against newly appeared strainscVaccines are given to high risk groups heart disease elderly health workerdAntivirals are available but only active against type A2Parainfluenza Viruses1Frequent in infants and children2Cause respiratory diseases that have severe complications3Cause laryngotracheobronchitis bronchiolitis bronchopneumonia4Cannot cause epidemics5No vaccine3Respiratory Syncytial Viruses RSV1Major respiratory pathogen in children under age 22Bronchiolitis and pneumonia can be fatal3Can cause epidemics4Antiviral available but no vaccine4Rhinoviruses1Major cause of common cold2Over 100 different serological typesand no cross immunity3Repeated infections are common5Adenoviruses1Mainly cause pharyngitis and conjunctivitis in young children2Many inapparent infections3Some often cause pneumonia in infants and children4Can cause epidemics5Vaccine used in army2Enteric Viruses EnterovirusesMultiply in GI tract but doesnt cause gastroenteritisHowever from GI tract can disseminate to other target organs through viremia and cause severe damage usually in CNSInfection through respiratory and GI tracts
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