Study Guides (238,270)
Canada (115,049)
HSS2121 (19)
All (1)

Review for midterm.doc

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Ottawa
Health Sciences

Review for midtermHSS212112 Great health achievements in the past 100 yearsTobacco use Inthe1950smorethanhalfofadultssmokedtodaythefigureislessthan1in5VaccinationOncecommonkillersofchildrensuchaspoliosmallpoxandmeasleshavevirtuallydisappearedMotor vehiclesTherateofroaddeathshasfallenbymorethanhalfsincethe1970sthroughinitiativeslikeseatbeltlawsWorkplacesSafetyinitiativesandgreaterattentiontophysicalenvironmenthasimprovedthelotofworkersInfectious diseasesEpidemicsofcholeratyphusandtuberculosiswereoncecommonCardiovascular healthChangesindietandinvestmentinpreventionhaveledtosharpdeclinesindeathfromheartdiseaseandstrokeFoodRegulationandinspectionhasdramaticallyreducedfoodbornediseaseMothers and babiesAcenturyagooneinsevenchildrendiedbeforeage2anddeathduringchildbirthwascommonFamily planning ThelegalizationofbirthcontrolanddecriminalizationofabortionhasgivenwomenreproductiverightsEnvironmentAirpollutionandwaterpollutionarefarlesscommonSocial programsMedicarechildbenefitsandoldagepensionshavereducedinequitiesActing on social determinantsThereisagrowingrecognitionthateducationhousingandincomearekeystohealthoutcomesHistory of healthcareMedicare in Canada is a governmentfunded universal health insurance program established by legislation passed in 1957 1966 and 1984As the Canadian health care system evolved rising costs for hospital and medical services led citizens progressive health professionals and some politicians to argue that health care was a social good not merely another purchasable commodity The Canadian program provides universal coverage for all citizens and permanent residents enabling them to access services throughout the country when they travel 19141929Agriculture resource extractiondominant economic activities Seperation of urban and rural needs resulted in the formation of new political parties such as the United Farmers of Alberta and the National Progressive Party At the provincial level several of these new parties supported public health measures intended to improve access to curative services and to expand preventive activities In 1920s for the first time Canadian census data revealed an equal split between urban and rural residents This had profound consequences for public attitudes towards the role of government in the provision of such social services as oldage pensions unemployment insurance workers compensation mothers allowance and sickness insurance The responsibility for many of these services had been assigned to the provinces under the British North America Act of 1867In 1914 Canada had eight medical schools with 1792 students in all the majority of whom went into private practice as general practitionersBest doctorpatient ratio British Columbia Ontario Alberta QuebecWorst doctor patient ratio Newfoundland Territories New BrunswickIn 1916 Saskatchewan amended the Rural Municipality Act to permit communities to hire doctors on contractIn rural areas in other provinces general practitioners continued to make house calls to deliver babiesSaskatchewan and Alberta also pioneered union hospital districts in order to bring the benefits of modern medical and nursing care to their communitiesHow were the medical bills to be financedTraditionally medical care had been a commodity that required payment from the patient to the practitioner at the time the service was provided But in recognition of the poverty of many working people municipalities had undertaken to provide subsidies to local hospitals for institutional care and churches and charitable organizations had encouraged doctors to provide their services free to the poor To compensate for the loss of these fees most doctors charged different rates depending on their assessment of a patients ability to pay Thus the middle class and the wealthy were supporting care for the less affluent As the population grew however many people did not make use of medical services because they feared the burden of debt charges particularly once diagnostic tools such as Xrays and additional hospital accommodation became more readily available in the 1920sFirst world war took placethen Halifax explosions and thenInfluenza Pandemic 19181919Influenza attacked troops on both sides of the conflict The outbreak spread quickly to the civilian population killing many young adults between the ages of 20 and 45 Communities rallied to provide food bedding fuel and care to the stricken but the speed of the diseases spread revealed the limits of medical knowledgeAs he and other speakers noted Canada had high maternal and infant mortality rates poor housing poverty and high rates of industrial accidents and trauma in addition to war casualties The role of the federal government was to collect information about these problems and to encourage the provinces to provide programs to alleviate them The Medical Profession and Social PolicyThrough the 1920s as the Canadian population grew from 87 to 103 million and more people settled in cities the demand for hospital and medical care increased at the same time as the middle classs ability to pay for them was eroded State Medicine or Health InsuranceOther speakers questioned such a comprehensive proposal At each of the conferences they raised the unpalatable prospect of state medicine This was defined as a means of turning doctors into civil servants and making them subservient to bureaucrats rather than allowing them to function as independent professionals Defining Federal Health ActivitiesIn 1927 Canadians had celebrated the 60th anniversary of ConfederationConstitutional Limits or New ApproachesIn 1929 when the Standing Committee on Industrial and International Relations again discussed federal involvement in sickness insuranceit was Henri Bourassa the Quebec nationalist who suggested that it was time for constitutional change ConclusionFrom 1919 to 1929 Canadians saw the creation and realignment of the first federal Department of Health Initially the new department was not involved in the development of sickness insurance measures even though workers concerns about their health status and rising health care costs had provided an impetus for its creation While the Western provinces examined the issue and experimented with travelling clinics and maternity benefits federal support for veterans created a group of citizens who viewed government involvement in health care as a right of citizenship The Great Depression would prove to be the catalyst for redefining Canadians values leading to the initial attempts to create provincial health insurance plans19301939Deflation and DesperationBetween 1929 and 1932 as the national and international economies collapsed Canadians of all social classes were experiencing the most calamitous decline in their incomes ever The average
More Less

Related notes for HSS2121

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.