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Up until test 2.doc

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DeductiveReasoningSeptember27thDeductive Reasoning An argument intended t provide logically conclusive support for its conclusion relates to what is logically possibleThe defining characteristic of a deductive argument is that it is valid or invalid A deductive argument is intended to provide conclusive support for its conclusionFinal definitive undeniable supportThe structure of some arguments is deductiveWhen arguments structured this way are good they guarantee their conclusionExamples 1 All philosophers are smartMacdonald is a philosophySo Macdonald must be smart 2 Im taller than AimeeAimee is taller than Melissa So Im taller than Melissa3 If you drove through town you drove right past my houseAnd you did drive right through townSo you must have driven right past my houseIn each case if the premises offered really are true then the conclusion must also be true and wetherefore describe that argument as being valid Example Pigs have wingsAny animal with wings can flySo pigs can flyFalse premisesFalse conclusionDo the premises support the conclusion YesThe structure of the argument is validNew Brunswick is west of OntarioEvery Province west of Ontario is famous for harvesting lobsterThus New Brunswick is famous for harvesting lobster False premisesTrue ConclusionCombination of false premises and true conclusion is validIf youre reading this statement you are aliveYou are reading this statement Hence you are aliveOf an argument has a combination of false premises and false conclusions it is still a valid deductive argumentArguments that are valid can be described as havingFalse premises and false conclusionFalse premises and true conclusionTrue premises and true conclusionThe only combination of premises and a conclusion that a valid argument cannot have is a true premises and a false conclusion invalid argumentImagine scenario where the premise can be trust and the conclusion false
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