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PHI Study Notes-1.doc

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EgoismRefers to the role of selfinterest in decisionmakingMyth of Gyges Classic story about human nature that argues for selfishness PlatoIf there was a ring that made you invisible even to the Gods then morality wouldnt existPower corrupts unless there were consequences people would do whatever they wantedWe behave in a certain way because we are afraid of the consequences4 main pointsoBetter to be an evil person that everyone thinks is good than a good person who everyone thinks is eviloPeople admire successful bad people over unsuccessful good peopleoReligion actually encourages evil because it allows people to be cleansed of their sins by performing rituals and going on pilgrimages Designed to help evil peoplenot good peopleoOnly frightened and weak people choose the just lifetho5 point that is not as important Give this ring to both bad and good men and eventually both will become badthAyn Rana 20 RussianAmericanBelieves you can do whatever you want but you just need to watch out for punishmentEthical egoismnormativechoosing out of selfinterestthThomas Hobbes 17 EnglishClaims that we are naturally guided by our selfinterestPsychological Egoism claim that whether we know it or not we do things to make ourselves feel good do things out of our own selfinterestoThis means that choice doesnt play a role in our actions for always doing what makes us feel good means there is no freewilloNo freewill means not moralityoNonnormative we dont have a choice psychological egoism technically nonnormativeSocrates Justice is necessary for individual and state to function and that our actions arent based on rewardpunishment but on an internal feeling of empathyHuman nature to seek peace of mind that is not satisfied by the selfish life along with human motivation is based on empathy a good emotion4 Values to be the best personoWisdom Justice Fortitude moral courage and Temperance selfcontrolthDavid Hume 18 ScottishArgues Socrates place about egoismBelieves one should not and we are not empathetic creatures and that we are supposed to care only about issues and people closer to us more then we do to strangersIf we are guided by empathy than we are guided by our relationships with others and our emotional contacts Empathy is governed by spacetimeNot shame to not care about issues and people who lie outside our emotional livesThe Third Man farther people are from us in relationships the more closer they are to being just numbers to us If you dont know someone than you dont carethJoseph Butler 18 EnglishBelieves we do things out of obligation ex keeping our promisesYou help people only to feel good The selfish person wouldnt feel good when helping other people wouldnt want to help in the first placeAdam Smith Wealth of NationsEveryone should seek their own selfinterestFriends with Hume and adopted much of his theoryRichard Dawkins 1970sBiologically we are all selfish Our genes are made for us to be selfish has no morals just wants to survive The Selfish GeneThis argues for selfinterest demonstrated by the Prisoners Dilemma gamePath to success is to do to others what they do to youRobert LoudonCriticizes virtue ethicsoDoesnt tell you want to do only works in the long term separates actions from people Actions are evil in themselvesEmotionalEmpathy vs Reason we are governed by emotions but believe everyone else should be governed by reason But we are all governed by what is close to usSelfishness vs Selfinterest selfinterest is guided by our emotional nature Selfishness misses other important aspects of human beings and is very rare This person has no empathy not should they care about anyone but themselvesEthical Egoism no logical argument to convince someone otherwisetell them not to be a coward Even an insane person cares about something Complete selfishness is very rareVirtue Ethics 2 subcategories1 coreethics feminist ethics women more caring than men 2 narrative ethics we all have our storytell us how we live and who we areRespect someone by respecting their storyVirtue is for yourself and for otherssMorals are learned from life experiences like learning to play an instrumentBecoming a good person is taught through practiceGolden median is Courageno one can teach you You can only learn to get there If you want to be courageous do courageous things
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