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Exam Study Notes POL2101.doc

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University of Ottawa
Political Science
Luc Turgeon

Exam Study Notes POL2101 Part 1: Key Words JAN 10 . LECTURE 1 Royal Proclamation: • 1763 – Document that sets out the guidelines for European settlement of Aboriginal territories o Guidelines of relationship between European and Aboriginal • Establish the relation between Aboriginal and the Crown • Still valid today? o Aboriginals didn’t give up their land o Royal Proclamation basically says that Aboriginal still own their land • Crown would negotiate from nation to nation with Indigenous people, people technically can’t take indigenous land without their consent etc. • Section 25 of Constitution act of 1982 – enshrined the RP o Treaties negotiated of the RP are still valid today This treaty said that First Nations land rights were recognized  Crown agreed to give them land rights  Settlers couldn’t just take their land  But these rights weren’t always respected  Settlers that came after often displaced first nations  Land rights decreased by 70% Quebec Act: Revokes Royal Proclamation when it comes to French could not be held from public court o Roman Catholic church could have its own activities, collect money from their people, administer parts of their community o Maurice Seguin  “legalized survival”  The Quebec act legalized survival • Francophone can remain Francophone o Pissed of Americans  Almost made Ohio/Cincinnati part of Quebec Act of Union The British send Lord Durham to write a report of what should be done with Upper and Lower Canada o “Quebec” people with no history and language, he doesn’t like the French  Recommends the French be assimilated  Upper Canada and lower Canada be merged, abandoned two separate parliaments  English becomes the only official language  Give them responsible government • Because that was the cause of the rebellion • Once responsible government comes in, they bring French back o Lafontaine – Baldwin Union  Example of consociationalism • Each group has a veto (the English and the French) • Any agreement or legislation that is passed has to be passed by both • Same representation Confederation/BNA Act (Constitution Act, 1982) :  Key Factors o Economic o Military o Political  Four provinces become Canada, and over time add more  Take one colony and join it with other colonies to become Canada (nova scotia, new Brunswick plus Ontario and Quebec)  Canada is not a confederation (EU is, but we’re not)  The word federation was a pejorative at the time with the Americans  We produce goods, and ship them to Europe o We sent fur, but too much fur so diversify, send to Australia  Fear of American invasion, therefore build up military, especially in the west  Over time Ontario English population grew bigger, got annoyed that French would veto their legislation o Our constitution is an act of the british act Compact theory: Basis of the Mowat-Mercier alliance o Mowat was premier of Ontario, Mercier was the premier of Quebec, and they get into a fight with John A. o Ontario complained a lot, mostly the ‘Mowat’ show o French liked it at first, but what did Ontario do with that power  Ontario used the power to diminish the French  Trying to assimilate the French population  Close French schools  French say, that the compact was so supposed to be an alliance of the two Meech Lake/Charlottetown Accord o Meech Lake  Includes a interpretative clause • Whatever the supreme courts pass, they have to recognize the Quebec is a unique snowflake  After it’s signed, 1987, deadline is 1990 • All provinces have to sign within 3 years of the accord • Ultimately NWFLD and MN refused to sign • Harper (first nations) blocks it because it ignored indigenous people • Since they didn’t sign on, the accord crumbles o Charlottetown Accord  Canada clause  Tried to bring in indigenous  Quebec said no because not enough independence, the rest of the country said it was too much • Meech gave more to Quebec o Said it Quebec were distinct nation  Rejected in referendum  Referendum in 1995 (49.45% said yes) Trudeau’s main aim was to constitutionalize rights of Canadians: equality • Muster political support in patriating 1982 constitutional amendment: got support of 9 out of 10 provinces (excluding  Quebec) • Brian Mulroney was elected on notion of reintegrating Quebec back into the constitutional fold with honour and  enthusiasm ­> Quebec Liberal Party said there were 5 conditions that needed to be met before they agree to  constitutional change  o Recognition as distinct society o Constitutional veto power o Quebec having a say in appointment of judges in Supreme Court o Constitutional agreement of increased power in immigration delegation o Limitation of federal spending power • Many provincial governments who had signed the Meech Lake accord had successors with reservations about the  accord and no obligation to sign­> accord failed to ratify • Recognition of Quebec as a distinct society would transform Quebec nationalism from a political movement to a  constitutionally entrenched fact Failed when the legislatures of Manitoba and NFLD failed to ratify it by the constitutionally imposed deadline Multinational state  After 1995 referendum Canadians refer to Canada as a multinational  A state – independent territory on a  Nations is different definition  Ex. UK is Welsh, English, Scots  Similarly Canada is multinational sociological, politically, not so much  Eventually Stephen Harper recognizes Quebec as a unique nation He used ‘Quebecois’ referring to the French in Quebec Canada First Movement o Canada as “Britain of the North” o Stressed the racial homogeneity of Canada o Stressed more the racial differences o Our history is pretty racist o We stressed our British connection  Central importance of the British Connection  Post-War period: in search of an identity o Development of Canadian symbols and institutions o Diversity as a defining characteristics Hartz-Horowitz Thesis Understanding in the 1960s why Canada was more “socially progressive” than the United States Notion that when settlers came, they brought one ideology and it tended to congeal over time creating a dominant political culture Canada had a “Tory-touch” (where the United States were uniformly liberal) more conducive to progressive policies Liberalism + Toryism = Socialism Quebec was “feudal” (backward) Critiques: Revisionist historians Jan 15 Lecture 2: Indigenous Politics Key Terms Indian Act: • Key characteristics o The mission of the CA state, to ‘civilize/socialize indigenous people’ to have the values or demeanor of the British Canadians o Turned the aboriginal population into “legal wards of the State”  A parental type of relationship (from the British POV) 1. Created a Bureaucracy to administrate the affairs of Indigenous people ‘Ministry of Indian Affairs’ 2. Decide who was and who wasn’t an indigenous person. Their status was dictated by the government 3. Definition of ‘indigenous’ person was very sexist  If indigenous man marries a white woman, he keeps his status  If indigenous women marries a white man, she loses her status  Status was transmitted through male line 4. Created Rights infringement  Over time they would lose their status  Indigenous people would lose their aboriginal status if they become a doctor, lawyer, clergy man, if you go to university etc., • You would become a Canadian citizen • They didn’t have the right to vote until late 1960s, they were ‘wards of the state’ 5. Imposed elected Chiefs  We imposed how Band council could be elected 6. Only indigenous people could live on indigenous land  Which sometimes led to the expulsion of the indigenous women 7. No provincial or federal tax can be imposed on the territory  Part of the deal • These characteristics ^ covered status indian, and not metis or inuit • Additional racist bullshit o 1885 – forbid certain types of ceremonies o 1914 – western aboriginals need official permission to wear their traditional garments in public, from the person superintendent of aboriginal affairs in Ottawa o 1930 – prohibition going to pool hall if the owner didn’t want them to • Govern Status Indian but not metis and Inuit • Different amendments adopted over the years • Still governing the relationship between the crown and the aboriginals Colonialism: “Process of exploitation, domination and subjection of a people by another people • “Process of exploitation, domination and subjection of a people by another people. o Examples: FR and ENG colonialism of CA o Algeria colony of FR, Congo a colony of Belgium, Dutch had Indonesia etc. • In the context of indigenous peoples in Canada o Control over lands and resources o Control over peoples: “civilizing mission”  Social Darwinism • Justified because their mission was to bring a higher order of culture by force 1969 White Paper: Goal was to abolish the Indian Act, and the Indian Affairs bureaucracy • Transfer responsibility for education, health care, social services to the provinces o Huge backlash in indigenous population  View propose as an opportunity to assimilate  Property rights, etc. they don’t want to deal with provinces, they’re nations, they’ve always dealt with the crown,, that’s who the treaties have been signed with, that traditional use that land for resources • Eventually the act is defeated • Contributed to the rise of contemporary indigenous nationalism o Leads to a new wave of indigenous population and rights to self- government o Self-determination  That land belongs to us, as indigenous population we should be able to do what we want with that land Goal was to abolish the Indian Act and the Indian Affairs bureaucracy. Transfer responsibility for education, health care, social services to the provinces. Contributed to the rise of contemporary indigenous nationalism Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples: • Royal commissions often give the biggest changes to policy o Officially apologized to Indians for their treatment (residential school) o Self-government - aboriginal parliament with advisory role o Represented in constitutional negotiation o More money to spend on commissions o Most of the recommendations shelled o Aboginial people say government is being slow on purpose, overall relationships haven’t improved significantly Self-Government • Right to govern their own affairs • Product of section 35 • Unclear what it concretely entails o But related to argument for a third order of government that is constitutionally protected o Tre’s already section 35, but its not clear enough that would secure right ot land claims  Territoires would need to be bigger than what they are now  Third order of government  We already have provinces but wed also have indigenous government, officialy, their own responsibilities and resources, and that they are at the negotiations  Distinct government to govern their economy, land etc  If you want an equal nation to nation relationship they need their own government  Argument against • Indigenous population is very diverse, and sometimes their territory or population is too small, and if you expand the land beyond their existing land, then you include non- native people in their territory o Do we include these non-natives in Canadian law, or aboriginal law? Quebec politics and French Canada lecture 3 Jan 17 French Canadian nationalism: • Key role of the Church • Boundaries o All of Canada  We should be protecting French o Protection of French- Canadian minorities key • Characteristics o French AND Catholicism o Special vocation as a people o CANADIAN nationalists  They despise that English Canadian always go to war when Britian does. We should be a country and stop following everyone else. o Differences in terms of political objectives  Bourassa was liberal… more critical as of Britain as a whole A belief system that gives special significance to the nation as a source of loyalty, a nation it wishes to promote and preserve. Nationalism can change over time has the definition of the nation change. Canada attempts to accommodate Québec. Conquest • French colony, but limited resources o Very slow expansion  France didn’t care for new France unlike England  After time the settlers began to separate from France and became Canadians • Conquest as a “traumatic” event in Québec history o France left them, and were conquered by the British o Some believe that yes they are conquer but they can play it to their advantage such as in politics • Loyal citizens of the British Crown o Québec Act, 1774 o Constitution Act, 1791 Patriot rebellion • Responsible government and the fight against the Chateau Clique o Francophone and Anglophone  It was a fight for responsible government  8F/1A but then the proportion then become equal  the rich English merchants were pulling the string behind the scene • Defeat and the Durham Report o They need to join the Anglophone because they do not have a history. They need to be assimilated • Profoundly transformed nationalism in the province • Survivance and the Revenge of the Cradle o French Canadians had the highest birth rate before the 1950s, and the Catholic Church was helping in the situation. It is your duty to have a lot a children Quiet Revolution: • Election of the Liberal Party of Québec in 1960 o ‘Its time for a change' o QR: 1960-1966 when the liberal were in power • The State takes over responsibilities from the Church o Before all social services were responsible of the church and then took it from them o It was the least sympathetic to welfare but now it wasn’t • Demands for more powers in the Canadian federation o We need to protect the French language • Efforts to expand the economic power of Francophones o The economy at that time was dominated by Anglophone and there needs to be a change • Broader cultural changes o As time went on attendance to the church declined to the point that Quebec was the most secular state in North America. Very big change Election of the Liberal Party of Québec in 1960. The State takes over responsibilities from the Church. Demands for more powers in the Canadian federation. Efforts to expand the economic power of Francophones. Broader cultural changes Quebec nationalism: Stress the territorial aspect of nationalism o The only way to protect ourselves to separate from the Anglophones • Rise of political parties promoting the independence of Québec o There were political parties that promote nationalism o RIN, RN, MSA and the PQ  They all blend together to form the PQ, who’s main objective to make Quebec a country • Linguistic controversies and attempts to find a compromise o Before it was hard to go into a French school in Quebec if you are an immigrant and now they force them to go and this causes controversy • More radical movement: the Front de Libération du Québec and the October Crisis o They would set up bombs that symbolize Anglophones. o OC: they kidnap two people, one died, the wars measures act was put into effect and large amounts of people. This act suspends the civil liberties of citizens. When the person that was the end of the FLQ. Bill 101: • Québec’s main language legislation (1977-) o The PQ becomes leader of Quebec • Also know as la Charte de la langue française • Key aspects o Language of education  Children will be taught in French (public) o Language of work o Language of commercial signs • Some aspects will be modified over time Impact of Bill 101 • Profoundly change the linguistic face of Québec, especially Montréal o • One of the factors that contributed to reverse the economic inferiority of Francophones o To get a job you need to speak French • Changed Québecers’ view of immigrants o Foreigner become schoolmate • “Bill 101 has been a great Canadian law” o Who do you believe said that? o Dion: it saved Canada; it can protect the French in Quebec. It was a mistake to do it before the referendum because it show
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