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7 Pages

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Kenneth Campbell

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Chapter Review - Prologue - Structuralism: early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind - Functionalism: school of psychology that focused on how our mental/behavioural processes function how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish - Behaviourism: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behaviour without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2). - Humanistic psychology: historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individuals potential for personal growth - Cognitive neuroscience: the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language) - Nature-nurture issue: the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviours. Todays science sees traits and behaviours arising from the interaction of both. - Natural selection: principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contribution to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations - Basic research: pure science aims to increase the scientific knowledge base - Applied research: scientific study that aims to solve practical problems - Counselling psychology: branch of psychology that assists people with problems of living (related to work, school, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being - Clinical psychology: studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders - SQ3R: a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review. Bio-psychological approach integrates information from the biological, psychological, and socio-cultural levels of analysis. Psychologists study human behaviours and mental processes from many different perspectives (including neuro-scientific, evolutionary, behaviour genetics, psychodynamic, behavioural, cognitive, and socio-cultural) Chapter 1 Review Thinking Critically with Psychology Science - Hindsight bias: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon) i.e. September 11 , 2001 - Operational definition: statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. - Replication: repeating the essence of a research study usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances 1- Naturalistic observation: observing and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation - Scatterplots: a graphed cluster with dots which represents the values of two variables - Illusory correlation: the perception (we believe that) of a relationship where none exists - Double-blind procedure: experiment procedure when both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the participants have received a treatment or a placebo - Experimental group: exposed to treatment (independent variable) - Control group: NOT exposed to treatment; contrasts to experimental group (serves as comparison for evaluating effects of treatment) - Mean: the arithmetic average (median: middle score, mode: most frequent) - Range: difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution - Standard deviation: computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score - Statistical significance: a statistical statement of how likely it is than an obtained result occurred by chance Chapter 2 Review Biology of the Mind - Synapse: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. - Reuptake: a neurotransmitters re-absorption by the sending neuron - Endorphins: natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure - Endocrine system: the bodys s
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