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Rosalinde Klempan

PSY 1101 9/30/2013 1:47:00 PM Roots  before psychologists there were philosophers  Wilhelm Wundt o In 1879 established first psych lab o Structuralism: focus on introspection (self-exam of mental life) o Father of experimental psychology  1920s-mid 1960s study of overt behaviour  Functionalism: focus on how our mental and behavioural processes function- how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish (Wiliam James)  John B. Watson o Study only public events o Father of behaviourism: psychology should be an objective science that studies behaviour without reference to mental processes (Skinner)-nurture o The scientific study of observable behavior  SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL PROCESSES  Humanistic psychology: emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth o Rebelled against Freudian psych and behaviourism o Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow o Additional influences:  1920- unconscious influences (Freud)  1950- neurophysiology  1970- cognitive processes  Cognitive neuroscience: interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language) Major Issues  Stability vs Change  Rationality vs Irrationality  Nature vs Nurture (Charles Darwin-evolution vs John Locke-blank slate) o Interactionism: heredity & environment interacting Levels of analysis: the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon Biopsychosocial approach: an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis Perspectives  Neuroscience o How the body & brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences o Processes that underlie behaviour and mental events  Evolutionary o How the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes o How evolutionary mechanisms may function & influence behaviour  Behaviour genetics o How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences  Psychodynamic o How behaviour can stem from unconscious processes o Freud  Behavioural o How observable behaviour is learned  Cognitive o How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information o Mental processes: perception, memory, problem solving  Social-cultural o Influence of culture and situation on behaviour Subfields & Types of Psychologists  Basic research o pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base o describe and explain behaviour and mental processes  Applied research  assess a real life situation to solve a practical problem  Counseling psychology: a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being  Clinical psychology: a branch of psychology that studies, asses, and treats people with psychological disorders (emotional or behavioural) to enhance functioning  Psychiatry: a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy  Developmental: study human development and factors that shape it from birth to old age  Social: study how people perceive and interpret their social world/ how behaviours, beliefs and attitudes are influenced by others/ social relationships and behaviour of groups  School: work with children to evaluate learning and emotional problems  Industrial: personnel selection/job training  Engineering: help design machines/work tools CHAPTER 1  Hindsight bias: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I knew it all along)  Overconfidence o We tend to think we know more than we do  Scientific attitude o Curiosity- passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled o Skepticism- what do you mean, how do you know o Humility- awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives  Critical thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions The Scientific Method-The logic of inquiry  Control (Most Important): everything done to control all factors except one of interest o Purpose: to isolate the cause of an effect o Variable: any factor that can take on different values along some dimension  Operational definitions: define terms by the steps or operations used to measure them  Replication: observations must be reproducible  Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events  An explanation describing a relationship between a phenomena and the factors assumed to influence it  Organizes principles  Predicts behaviours or events  EX: a theory of depression helps us organize countless depression- related observations into a short list of principles. People with depression describe their past, present and future in gloomy terms > heart of depression lies in low self-esteem  Hypothesis: a testable prediction, implied by a theory o A good theory must be testable, results can support the theory or disconfirm it  Operational definition: a statement of the procedures used to define research variables (ex. Human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures)  Replication: repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends …  Our theory will be useful if it effectively organizes a range of self- reports and observations, and implies clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applications. Description  The Case Study : an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles  Intensive study of a single subject  Determine nature and causes of individual behaviour  Understand individual and similar future cases  Usually clinical studies  Main problems: lack of generalizability (small sample size), non- standardization of data collection (comparison difficult), retrospective data by recollection- accuracy?, bias  The Survey: a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group  To describe behaviour or opinions of people by taking a self-report (questionnaire or interview) on a sample  Random selection of a sample from population  Wording effects- subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can have major effects  Random sampling: representative sample for an accurate picture of a whole population’s attitudes and experience (question every 100 people)  Each person in population has an equal probability of being included  Naturalistic observation: observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation which can provide accurate description  Time consuming  Cannot determine cause-and-effect o Findings- humans laugh 30 times more often in social situations than in solitary situations o Pace of life in 31 different countries: Japan and Western Europe are the fastest, less-developed is slower Correlation: a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Expresses the relationship between measures (variables) In terms of: direction, strength  Surveys and naturalistic observations show that one trait/behaviour is related to another  A correlation coefficient o Statistic expressing relationship o Symboloized: r o Range:-1.00 to +1.00 o +When both increase or decrease together o –when variables move in opposite directions o Value indicates strength-higher value means stronger relationship- can have strong negative or positive correlation o How used: no manipulation or treatment involved (just measures variables) Can enable prediction  Low self-esteem correlates with and predicts depression, but does low self-esteem cause depression… no  Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship but does not prove causation  Two problems: o reverse causation – does var a cause b or does b cause a o third variable could cause both a and b  Illusionary correlation: perception of a relationship where none exists  Random coincidences are random not correlated  We look for order in random data to make sense of the world  Why use correlational design? o When cannot ethically manipulate certain variables o Not possible to manipulate variables Experimentation: a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors Objective observation of phenomena which are made to occur in a strictly controlled situation in which one or more factors are varied and the others are kept constant Researcher makes systematic changes to one variable and looks for effects of these changes on a second year Can investigate cause and effect relationships Three advantages:  Control  Ability to manipulate variables precisely  Able to determine cause and effect relationships Three disadvantages:  Artificilaity  Design difficulties  Time consuming  Cause and effect are isolated  Manipulate the factors of interest and controlling other factors. o Random Assignment: assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups o true experimental study: experimenter assigns subjects to conditions, after experimental condition applied scores on the dependent variable assessed for all conditions o Experimental control: all factors controlled (kept equivalent for all groups) except independent variable  if a behaviour changes when we vary an experimental factor, then we infer the factor is having an effect  unlike correlational studies, an experiment manipulates a factor to determine its effect  double-blind procedure: both the research participants and the research staff are blind about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo  placebo effect: experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behaviour caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent  experimental group: group exposed to the treatment, to one version of the independent variable  control group: group not exposed to the treatment; contrast with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment o Independent variables: the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied o Dependent variables: the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable o Dependent depends on the independent o Experimental condition :  treatment condition  Exposure to independent variables o Control Condition:  No exposure to independent variable o **experiments aim to manipulate an independent variable, measure the dependent variable, and control all other variables. Experiments have at least 2 different groups: experimental and comparison/control group. Random assignment works to equate the groups before any treatment effects. Describing Data  Measures of Central Tendency o A single score that represents a whole set of scores o Simplest measure is the mode: most frequently occurring score o Most commonly reported is the mean: average of distribution o Median: middle score in a distribution o *always note which measure of central tendency is reported. If it is mean, consider whether a few atypical scores could be distorting it  Measures of Variation o Range: difference between the highest and lowest scores o Standard deviation: computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score  Ex. If your college attracts students of a certain ability level, their intelligence scores will have a relatively small standard deviation compared with more diverse popn Making Inferences  When is an observed difference reliable? o Representative samples are better than biased samples o Less-variable observations are more reliable that those that are more variable o More cases are better than fewer Neuroscience & Behaviour 9/30/2013 1:47:00 PM 1- Neural Communication  Neurons  Neural structure  Neural functioning  How neurons communicate 2- The Nervous System  Subdivisions 3- The Brain  Neuroimaging techniques  Lower Level Brain Structures  Cerebral Cortex o Functions of the cortex o Motor o Sensory o Association o Language Biological Psychology (also neuro- or physiological, psych or behavioural neuroscience) Establish connections between biology & behaviour Neural Communication: nerve cells, basic unit of nervous system (NS) Neural Structure  Cell body: o Nucleus o Cell life support structures  Dendrites o A number of short branches o Project from cell body o Message receivers o Send to cell body  Axons o Fibre extending from neuron o Message transmitter o Sends messages from the cell body down to terminal branches o Message passed to other neurons/muscles/glands o Myelin Sheath  Layer of fatty tissue (insulates some axons)  Increases speed of impul
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